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Trillion-Frame-Per-Second Camera Captures Ultrafast Phenomena

Researchers from Japan have developed a new high-speed camera that can record events at a rate of more than 1-trillion-frames-per-second. The STAMP (Sequentially Timed All-optical Mapping Photography) technology holds promise for the study of complex, ultrafast phenomena.Keiichi Nakagawa, a research fellow at the University of Tokyo, experienced the need for a camera while studying how acoustic shock waves changed living cells. Scientists believe mechanical stress, like that caused by acoustic waves, may increase bone and blood vessel growth, but they had no tools for capturing the dynamics of such a fast, transient event as a shock wave passing through a cell.STAMP relies on a property of light called dispersion. The technology splits an ultrashort pulse of light into a barrage of different colored flashes that hit the imaged object in rapid-fire succession. Each separate color flash can then be analyzed to string together a moving picture of what the object looked like over the time it took the dispersed light pulse to travel through the device. Currently, the team is constructing an improved STAMP system that acquires 25 sequential images. Nakagawa believes the number of frames could eventually be increased to 100 with current technology.The camera could be used to explore a wide range of ultrafast phenomena for the first time, including image electronic motion, the laser ignition of fusion, the phase transition of materials, and the dynamics of a Coulomb explosion, an event in which intense electromagnetic fields can force a small amount of solid material to explode into a hot plasma of ionized atomic particles. SourceAlso: Read other Imaging Tech Briefs.

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'Gate Sensor' Detects Individual Electrons

A team of European researchers at the University of Cambridge has created an electronic device that detects the charge of a single electron in less than one microsecond. The "gate sensor" could be applied to quantum computers of the future to read information stored in the charge or spin of a single electron.“We have called it a gate sensor because, as well as detecting the movement of individual electrons, the device is able to control its flow as if it were an electronic gate which opens and closes,” said González Zalba, lead researcher from the Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory and the Cavendish Laboratory.The gate sensor is coupled to a silicon nanotransistor where the electrons flow individually. The innovation represents a new technological sector which bases its electronic functionality on the charge of a single electron.SourceAlso: Read more Electrical/Electronics tech briefs.

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New Wearable Device Turns Thumbnail into Trackpad

MIT Media Laboratory researchers are developing a wearable device that turns the user’s thumbnail into a miniature wireless track pad. To build their prototype, the researchers packed capacitive sensors, a battery, and three separate chips — a microcontroller, a Bluetooth radio chip, and a capacitive-sensing chip — into the thumbnail-sized device. The engineers built their sensors by printing copper electrodes on sheets of flexible polyester, which allowed them to experiment with a range of different electrode layouts.The capacitive sensing registers touch. A thin, nonactive layer is placed between the user’s finger and the underlying sensors.The team envisions that the technology could allow users to control wireless devices when their hands are full. The device could also augment other interfaces, as well as enable subtle communication via text. The researchers have also been in discussion with battery manufacturers and have identified a technology that they think could yield a battery that fits in the space of a thumbnail. A special-purpose chip that combines the functions of the microcontroller, radio, and capacitive sensor would further save space.SourceAlso: Read more Sensors tech briefs.

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Engineers Develop 2D Liquid

Soft nanoparticles from a University of Pennsylvania research team stick to the plane where oil and water meet, but do not stick to one another. The interface presents a potentially useful set of properties. The nanoparticles freely move past one another while being confined to the interface, effectively acting as a 2D liquid. Gold nanoparticles were decorated with surfactant, or soap-like, ligands. The ligands have a water-loving head and an oil-loving tail, and the way they are attached to the central particle allows them to contort themselves.The arrangement produces a “flying saucer” shape, with the ligands stretching out more at the interface than above or below. The ligand bumpers keep the particles from clumping together.  The researchers also devised ways of measuring the system's properties. Their data will better inform computer simulations and potentially lead to applications in fields like nanomanufacturing and catalysis. SourceAlso: Learn about a Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coating.

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Prototype Camera Powers Itself

A new prototype video camera is fully self-powered and can produce an image each second, indefinitely, of a well-lit indoor scene. Columbia University researchers designed a pixel that can not only measure incident light but also convert the incident light into electric power.The simple pixel design uses two transistors. During each image capture cycle, the pixels first record and read out the image, and then harvest energy and charge the sensor’s power supply; the image sensor continuously toggles between image capture and power harvesting modes. When the camera is not used to capture images, it can generate power for other devices, such as a phone or a watch.SourceAlso: Learn about Detection of Dropped Objects in Video.

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Special Delivery: NASA Marshall Receives 3D-Printed Tools from Space

Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, unboxed some special cargo from the International Space Station on April 6: the first items manufactured in space with a 3D printer.The items were manufactured as part of the 3D Printing in Zero-G Technology Demonstration on the space station to show that additive manufacturing can make a variety of parts and tools in space. The early in-space 3D printing demonstrations are the first steps toward realizing an additive manufacturing, print-on-demand “machine shop” for long-duration missions and sustaining human exploration of other planets, where there is extremely limited ability and availability of Earth-based resupply and logistics support. In-space manufacturing technologies like 3D printing will help NASA explore Mars, asteroids, and other locations.NASA astronaut Barry “Butch” Wilmore installed the printer in the station’s Microgravity Science Glovebox in November 2014. Before the end of the year, the crew manufactured 21 items including a ratchet wrench, the first tool built in space. To make the items, the printer heated a relatively low-temperature plastic filament to build parts, layer on top of layer, in designs supplied to the machine. The printer remains on aboard the station for continued use later this year. The printer used 14 different designs and built a total of 21 items and some calibration coupons. The parts returned to Earth in February on the SpaceX Dragon. They were then delivered to Marshall where the testing to compare the ground controls to the flight parts will be conducted. SourceAlso: Learn about the Design and Fabrication of a Radio Frequency Grin Lens Using 3D Printing.

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Smart Sensor System Continuously Monitors Machinery

A new method of continuously monitoring the status of machinery is a mobile tablet-based system that supplies information on the operational state of industrial machinery and plant equipment, and informs operators if a part needs to be replaced or if a repair can be postponed. The system uses sensors that continuously acquire data on parameters such as vibrational frequency or temperature.

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