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Integrated Genomic and Proteomic Information Security Protocol

A security protocol requires a cryptanalysis infrastructure not available to most attackers. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland The motivation for this research is the fact that, for a variety of reasons, networks and their existing authentication and confidentiality infrastructure are becoming more vulnerable to attack. The protocols in this research are based upon a security architecture that relies upon codes derived from the processes that regulate gene expression. In vivo, these processes control and regulate transcription of DNA into various forms of RNA, translation of messenger RNA into proteins, and a variety of other pre-and post-transcriptional and translational regulatory processes. They utilize networks of protein and nucleic acid complexes. Through use of information theory, the processes of regulation of gene expression are being adapted to network and information security. The approach can be used in conjunction with legacy security architectures, algorithms, and processes as well as Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET).

Posted in: Information Sciences, Electronics & Computers, Software, Briefs

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Flight Processor Virtualization for Size, Weight, and Power Reduction

A flight software system that was originally deployed on six separate physical processors is modeled using a single processor. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland This work demonstrated the cost-saving and fault-tolerant benefits of virtualization technology by consolidating the flight software from multiple flight processors into a single virtualized system. In this study, a flight software system that was originally deployed on six separate physical processors was modeled using a single processor and a real-time embedded hypervisor.

Posted in: Information Sciences, Electronics & Computers, Software, Briefs

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Massively Parallel Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition Applied to Traffic Flow Scheduling

Future decision support tools may make use of the model with commercial-off-the-shelf software and hardware. Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California Traffic flow management (TFM) of the National Airspace System (NAS) endeavors to deliver flights from their origins to their destinations while minimizing delays and respecting all capacities. There are several models for solving this problem. Some models aggregate flights into flows and others consider controls for individual flights. Typically, the latter set of models is computationally difficult to solve for large-scale, high-fidelity scenarios. One of the more heavily studied aircraft-level models presented by Bertsimas and Stock-Patterson (BSP) has runtime concerns that should not be overlooked, but it neatly describes the issues associated with TFM (respecting capacities of airspace resources and the schedules of individual aircraft).

Posted in: Information Sciences, Electronics & Computers, Software, Briefs

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Mission Control Technologies (MCT)

Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California MCT enables users to compose software from objects that can be assembled by end users to create integrated functionality. Applications are eliminated in favor of compositions of “live objects” that can be combined in different ways for different users and missions as required, in contrast to the more traditional software development method of pre-determining functionality and building a monolithic application.

Posted in: Information Sciences, Electronics & Computers, Software, Briefs

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Nanosensor/Cellphone Hybrid for Detecting Chemicals and Concentrations

Based on solid-state technology, the sensor requires no reagents and can be refreshed with an ultraviolet diode. Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California Nanosensors have been developed for chemical detection using carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Unlike other chemical sensors, this solid-state approach requires no reagents and can be refreshed with a solid-state ultraviolet (UV) diode. The sensors possess high sensitivity (ppbv), fast response (≈2 s), high selectivity, low power (μW), and very small size (1 cm2 or less based on advanced miniaturization), and they are ideally suited for integration with wireless networks or cellphone type devices.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Sensors, Briefs

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Coated or Doped Carbon Nanotube Network Sensors as Affected by Environmental Parameters

Applications include medical diagnostics, gas leak detection, and homeland security and defense. Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California Chemical sensors have been developed over the past decades to detect gases and vapors at various concentration levels for deployment in a wide range of industrial applications. The detection usually centers on a change of a particular property or status of the sensing material, such as temperature, electrical, and optical characteristics. Other types of sensors include electrochemical cells, conducting polymer sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, and catalytic bead sensors. Sensors based on nanotechnology promise to provide improved performance on all of these sensors compared to current micro and macro sensors.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Sensors, Briefs

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Regenerable Internal CO Scrubber for Hydrogen Sensors

A guard electrode would protect the sensing electrode to maintain sensor sensitivity toward hydrogen. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Amperometric electrochemical sensors are commonly used for the detection of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) in air. The electrochemistry of heterogeneous CO and H2 oxidations is similar enough that the sensors show significant cross-sensitivities between the two gases. Thus, in applications where H2 is being monitored in the presence of CO, amperometric hydrogen sensors will produce false positive responses due to the presence of CO. This error is further aggravated by the fact that the sensor’s response to CO is typically at least twice that for hydrogen on a volumetric basis. Furthermore, chronic CO exposure will poison or fatigue the H2 sensor electrodes and reduce the sensor sensitivity toward hydrogen.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Sensors, Briefs

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