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Lightweight Internal Device to Measure Tension in Hollow- Braided Cordage
System, Apparatus, and Method for Pedal Control
Dust Tolerant Connectors
Foldable and Deployable Power Collection System
Iodine-Compatible Hall Effect Thruster
Development of a Novel Electrospinning System with Automated Positioning and Control Software
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Precious-Metal Salt Coatings for Detecting Hydrazines

Colors change upon exposure to hydrazines and perhaps other hazardous gases. Substrates coated with a precious metal salt KAuCl4 have been found to be useful for detecting hydrazine vapors in air at and above a concentration of the order of 0.01 parts per million (ppm). Upon exposure to air containing a sufficient amount of hydrazine for a sufficient time, the coating material undergoes a visible change in color. Although the color change is only a qualitative indication, it can serve as an alarm of a hazardous concentration of hydrazine or as advice of the need for a quantitative measurement of concentration. Detection of hydrazine vapors by this technique costs much less and takes less time than does laboratory analysis of sorbent tubes using high-performance liquid chromatography, which is the technique used heretofore to detect hydrazines at concentrations down to 0.01 ppm.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials

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Nanocarpets for Trapping Microscopic Particles

Properties of nanocarpets can be tailored for selective trapping. Nanocarpets — that is, carpets of carbon nanotubes — are undergoing development as means of trapping microscopic particles for scientific analysis. Examples of such particles include inorganic particles, pollen, bacteria, and spores. Nanocarpets can be characterized as scaled-down versions of ordinary macroscopic floor carpets, which trap dust and other particulate matter, albeit not purposefully. Nanocarpets can also be characterized as mimicking both the structure and the particle-trapping behavior of ciliated lung epithelia, the carbon nanotubes being analogous to cilia (see figure).

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Materials

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Treated Carbon Nanofibers for Storing Energy in Aqueous KOH

Treatment can increase specific capacitance by as much as 400 percent. A surface treatment has been found to enhance the performances of carbon nanofibers as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors in which aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide are used as the electrolytes. In the treatment, sulfonic acid groups are attached to edge plane sites on carbon atoms.

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New Material for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

Reproducible measurements can be made quickly,without preparation of samples. A chemical method of synthesis and application of coating materials that are especially suitable for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)has been developed.The purpose of this development is to facilitate the utilization of the inherently high sensitivity of SERS to detect chemicals of interest (analytes) in trace amounts, without need for lengthy sample preparation.

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Using Iron To Treat Chlorohydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

Prompt chemical remediation is followed by longer-term enhanced bioremediation. A method of in situ remediation of soil contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents involves injection of nanometer-size iron particles. This method should not be confused with a similar method, involving injection of emulsified iron particles, reported in “Treatment To Destroy Chlorohydrocarbon Liquids in the Ground” (KSC-12246), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 6 (June 2003), page 56. Like that method, this method is implemented in a process that is safe, yields environmentally benign end products, takes less time and costs less than do traditional pump-and-treat processes, and is both less expensive and less environmentally disruptive than are cleanup processes that involve excavation, trans-port to facilities for incineration or other treatment, and reburial in landfills.

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Brazing SiC/SiC Composites to Metals

Success depends on suitable process conditions and adequate titanium contents in brazing alloys. Experiments have shown that active brazing alloys (ABAs) can be used to join SiC/SiC composite materials to metals, with bond strengths sufficient for some structural applications. The SiC/SiC composite coupons used in the experiments were made from polymer-based SiC fiber preforms that were chemical-vapor- infiltrated with SiC to form SiC matrices. Some of the metal coupons used in the experiments were made from 304 stainless steel;others were made from oxygen-free, high-conductivity copper.

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Composite-Material Tanks With Chemically Resistant Liners

Liner materials are chosen for compatibility with reactive and/or unstable fluids. Lightweight composite-material tanks with chemically resistant liners have been developed for storage of chemically reactive and/or unstable fluids — especially hydrogen peroxide. These tanks are similar, in some respects, to the ones described in — Lightweight Composite-Material Tanks for Cryogenic Liquids — (MFS-31379), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol.25, No.1 (January, 2001), page 58; however, the present tanks are fabricated by a different procedure and they do not incorporate insulation that would be needed to prevent boil-off of cryogenic fluids.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Materials

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