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Active Aircraft Pylon Noise Control System
Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management
Method of Bonding Dissimilar Materials
Sonar Inspection Robot System
Applying the Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method to Full-Scale Aerospace Vehicles
Method and Apparatus for Measuring Surface Air Pressure
Fully Premixed, Low-Emission, High-Pressure, Multi-Fuel Burner
Self-Healing Wire Insulation
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Analyzing Aeroelastic Stability of a Tilt-Rotor Aircraft

Proprotor Aeroelastic Stability Analysis, now at version 4.5 (PASTA 4.5), is a FORTRAN computer program for analyzing the aeroelastic stability of a tilt-rotor aircraft in the airplane mode of flight. The program employs a 10-degree-of-freedom (DOF), discrete- coordinate, linear mathematical model of a rotor with three or more blades and its drive system coupled to a 10-DOF modal model of an airframe. The user can select which DOFs are included in the analysis. Quasisteady strip-theory aerodynamics is employed for the aerodynamic loads on the blades, a quasi-steady representation is employed for the aerodynamic loads acting on the vibrational modes of the airframe, and a stability-derivative approach is used for the aerodynamics associated with the rigid-body DOFs of the airframe. Blade parameters that vary with the blade collective pitch can be obtained by interpolation from a user-defined table. Stability is determined by examining the eigenvalues that are obtained by solving the coupled equations of motions as a matrix eigenvalue problem. Notwithstanding the relative simplicity of its mathematical foundation, PASTA 4.5 and its predecessors have played key roles in a number of engineering investigations over the years.

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Tracking Positions and Attitudes of Mars Rovers

The Surface Attitude Position and Pointing (SAPP) software, which runs on computers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers, tracks the positions and attitudes of the rovers on the surface of Mars. Each rover acquires data on attitude from a combination of accelerometer readings and images of the Sun acquired autonomously, using a pointable camera to search the sky for the Sun. Depending on the nature of movement commanded remotely by operators on Earth, the software propagates attitude and position by use of either (1) accelerometer and gyroscope readings or (2) gyroscope readings and wheel odometry. Where necessary, visual odometry is performed on images to fine-tune the position updates, particularly on high-wheel-slip terrain. The attitude data are used by other software and ground-based personnel for pointing a high-gain antenna, planning and execution of driving, and positioning and aiming scientific instruments.

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Simulating Responses of Gravitational-Wave Instrumentation

Synthetic LISA is a computer program for simulating the responses of the instrumentation of the NASA/ESA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, the purpose of which is to detect and study gravitational waves. Synthetic LISA generates synthetic time series of the LISA fundamental noises, as filtered through all the time-delay- interferometry (TDI) observables. (TDI is a method of canceling phase noise in temporally varying unequalarm interferometers.) Synthetic LISA provides a streamlined module to compute the TDI responses to gravitational waves, according to a full model of TDI (including the motion of the LISA array and the temporal and directional dependence of the arm lengths). Synthetic LISA is written in the C++ programming language as a modular package that accommodates the addition of code for specific gravitational wave sources or for new noise models. In addition, time series for waves and noises can be easily loaded from disk storage or electronic memory. The package includes a Python-language interface for easy, interactive steering and scripting. Through Python, Synthetic LISA can read and write data files in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS), which is a commonly used astronomical data format.

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SOFTC: A Software Correlator for VLBI

SOFTC is an advanced software implementation of a signal correlator for verylong- baseline interferometry (VLBI) for measuring positions of natural celestial objects and distant spacecraft. Because of increases in processing speeds of general- purpose computers, software VLBI correlators have become viable alternatives to hardware ones. The input to SOFTC consists of digitized samples of raw VLBI-antenna received-signal voltages. Optionally, SOFTC also tracks calibration tones superimposed on the received signals. The outputs of SOFTC are (1) phases and amplitudes as functions of time and frequency for cross-correlated received signals and (2) phases and amplitudes as functions of time, station, and tone number for the calibration tones. SOFTC was created to be as accurate as possible, capable of processing essentially any VLBI data, pass strong debugging tests, have a simple user interface, and have no platform dependencies. SOFTC is written modularly in the C programming language. The great advantage of implementing a correlator in software, in contradistinction to hardware, is that it becomes relatively easy and much less expensive and time-consuming to adapt, modify, improve, and update the correlator.

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Program for Analyzing Flows in a Complex Network

Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) version 4 is a generalpurpose computer program for analyzing steady-state and transient flows in a complex fluid network. [GFSSP version 2.01 was reported in a prior issue of NASA Tech Briefs.] The program is capable of modeling compressibility, fluid transients (e.g., water hammers), phase changes, mixtures of chemical species, and such externally applied body forces as gravitational and centrifugal ones. A graphical user interface enables the user to interactively develop a simulation of a fluid network consisting of nodes and branches. The user can also run the simulation and view the results in the interface. The system of equations for conservation of mass, energy, chemical species, and momentum is solved numerically by a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive-substitution methods. The program includes subroutines that compute thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 12 fluids and is integrated with a commercial program that gives thermodynamic properties of 36 fluids. Eighteen different options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. Additional capabilities, including new resistance options, new fluids, and non-linear boundary conditions, can be added by means of subroutines. An audio-visual training CD (compact disk) containing lectures, demonstration of graphical user interface, and tutorial problems is available for learning to use the program.

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Computing Spacecraft Solar-Cell Damage by Charged Particles

General EQFlux is a computer program that converts the measure of the damage done to solar cells in outer space by impingement of electrons and protons having many different kinetic energies into the measure of the damage done by an equivalent fluence of electrons, each having kinetic energy of 1 MeV. Prior to the development of General EQFlux, there was no single computer program offering this capability: For a given type of solar cell, it was necessary to either perform the calculations manually or to use one of three Fortran programs, each of which was applicable to only one type of solar cell. The problem in developing General EQFlux was to rewrite and combine the three programs into a single program that could perform the calculations for three types of solar cells and run in a Windows environment with a Windows graphical user interface. In comparison with the three prior programs, General EQFlux is easier to use.

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Automated Camera Calibration

Automated Camera Calibration (ACAL) is a computer program that automates the generation of calibration data for camera models used in machine vision systems. Machine vision camera models describe the mapping between points in threedimensional (3D) space in front of the camera and the corresponding points in two-dimensional (2D) space in the camera’s image. Calibrating a camera model requires a set of calibration data containing known 3D-to-2D point correspondences for the given camera system. Generating calibration data typically involves taking images of a calibration target where the 3D locations of the target’s fiducial marks are known, and then measuring the 2D locations of the fiducial marks in the images. ACAL automates the analysis of calibration target images and greatly speeds the overall calibration process. ACAL consists of three modules:

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