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Distributed Propulsion Concepts and Superparamagnetic Energy Harvesting Hummingbird Engine
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Scheduling With Automatic Resolution of Conflicts

DSN Requirement Scheduler is a computer program that automatically schedules, reschedules, and resolves conflicts for allocations of resources of NASA’s Deep Space Network (DSN) on the basis of ever changing project requirements for DSN services. As used here, “resources” signifies, primarily, DSN antennas, ancillary equipment, and times during which they are available. Examples of project-required DSN services include arraying, segmentation, very-long-baseline interferometry, and multiple spacecraft per aperture. Requirements can include periodic reservations of specific or optional resources during specific time intervals or within ranges specified in terms of starting times and durations. This program is built on the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system (aspects of which have been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles), with customization to reflect requirements and constraints involved in allocation of DSN resources. Unlike prior DSN-resource scheduling programs that make single passes through the requirements and require human intervention to resolve conflicts, this program makes repeated passes in a continuing search for all possible allocations, provides a best-effort solution at any time, and presents alternative solutions among which users can choose.

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Computing for Aiming a Spaceborne Bistatic-Radar Transmitter

BISTAT is a computer program for use in aiming a spaceborne bistatic-radar transmitting antenna at a remote planet that has an atmosphere, such that after refraction by the atmosphere and reflection from the surface of the planet, the radar signal travels toward a receiver on Earth.  BISTAT includes an algorithm that neglects atmospheric refraction and calculates a specular reflection point for a spacecraft at a given location. The specular-reflection point is then used as an initial guess for a modified limb-track algorithm that takes atmospheric refraction into account. The output of BISTAT for all spacecraft positions of interest constitutes a pointing profile; the output data are in the form of an inertial-vector file and a Doppler-residual file. The inertial-vector file is used to command the attitude of the spacecraft; the Doppler residual file is used to determine a downlink frequency file for the receiver.

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Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid

Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data.  SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original nonsymbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic-reasoning computing systems as artificial-intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.

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Thermal Model of a Current-Carrying Wire in a Vacuum

A computer program implements a thermal model of an insulated wire carrying electric current and surrounded by a vacuum. The model includes the effects of Joule heating, conduction of heat along the wire, and radiation of heat from the outer surface of the insulation on the wire. The model takes account of the temperature dependences of the thermal and electrical properties of the wire, the emissivity of the insulation, and the possibility that not only can temperature vary along the wire but, in addition, the ends of the wire can be thermally grounded at different temperatures. The resulting second-order differential equation for the steady-state temperature as a function of position along the wire is highly nonlinear. The wire is discretized along its length, and the equation is solved numerically by use of an iterative algorithm that utilizes a multidimensional version of the Newton-Raphson method.

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Compressible Flow Toolbox

The Compressible Flow Toolbox is primarily a MATLAB-language implementation of a set of algorithms that solve approximately 280 linear and nonlinear classical equations for compressible flow. The toolbox is useful for analysis of one-dimensional steady flow with either constant entropy, friction, heat transfer, or Mach number >1. The toolbox also contains algorithms for comparing and validating the equation- solving algorithms against solutions previously published in open literature. The classical equations solved by the Compressible Flow Toolbox are as follows: The isentropic-flow equations, The Fanno flow equations (pertaining to flow of an ideal gas in a pipe with friction), The Rayleigh flow equations (pertaining to frictionless flow of an ideal gas, with heat transfer, in a pipe of constant cross section), The normal-shock equations, The oblique-shock equations, and The expansion equations.

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Code for Multiblock CFD and Heat-Transfer Computations

The NASA Glenn Research Center General Multi-Block Navier-Stokes Convective Heat Transfer Code, Glenn- HT, has been used extensively to predict heat transfer and fluid flow for a variety of steady gas turbine engine problems. Recently, the Glenn-HT code has been completely rewritten in Fortran 90/95, a more object-oriented language that allows programmers to create code that is more modular and makes more efficient use of data structures. The new implementation takes full advantage of the capabilities of the Fortran 90/95 programming language. As a result, the Glenn-HT code now provides dynamic memory allocation, modular design, and unsteady flow capability. This allows for the heat-transfer analysis of a full turbine stage. The code has been demonstrated for an unsteady inflow condition, and gridding efforts have been initiated for a full turbine stage unsteady calculation. This analysis will be the first to simultaneously include the effects of rotation, blade interaction, film cooling, and tip clearance with recessed tip on turbine heat transfer and cooling performance. Future plans call for the application of the new Glenn-HT code to a range of gas turbine engine problems of current interest to the heat-transfer community. The new unsteady flow capability will allow researchers to predict the effect of unsteady flow phenomena upon the convective heat transfer of turbine blades and vanes. Work will also continue on the development of conjugate heat-transfer capability in the code, where simultaneous solution of convective and conductive heattransfer domains is accomplished. Finally, advanced turbulence and fluid flow models and automatic gridding techniques are being developed that will be applied to the Glenn-HT code and solution process.

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General Flow-Solver Code for Turbomachinery Applications

Phantom is a computer code intended primarily for real-fluid turbomachinery problems. It is based on Corsair, an ideal-gas turbomachinery code, developed by the same authors, which evolved from the ROTOR codes from NASA Ames. Phantom is applicable to real and ideal fluids, both compressible and incompressible, flowing at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. It utilizes structured, overset, O- and H-type zonal grids to discretize flow fields and represent relative motions of components. Values on grid boundaries are updated at each time step by bilinear interpolation from adjacent grids. Inviscid fluxes are calculated to thirdorder spatial accuracy using Roe’s scheme. Viscous fluxes are calculated using second-order-accurate central differences. The code is second-order accurate in time. Turbulence is represented by a modified Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model. The code offers two options for determining properties of fluids: One is based on equations of state, thermodynamic departure functions, and corresponding state principles. The other, which is more efficient, is based on splines generated from tables of properties of real fluids. Phantom currently contains fluid-property routines for water, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, kerosene, methane, and carbon monoxide as well as ideal gases.

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