Special Coverage

Technique Provides Security for Multi-Robot Systems
Bringing New Vision to Laser Material Processing Systems
NASA Tests Lasers’ Ability to Transmit Data from Space
Converting from Hydraulic Cylinders to Electric Actuators
Automating Optimization and Design Tasks Across Disciplines
Vibration Tables Shake Up Aerospace and Car Testing
Supercomputer Cooling System Uses Refrigerant to Replace Water
Computer Chips Calculate and Store in an Integrated Unit
Electron-to-Photon Communication for Quantum Computing

Reusable Personal Radiation Dosimeter for Ultraviolet or Radioactive Radiation

This inexpensive device is worn on clothing and is reusable.

Radiation dosimeters are important for people working with radioactive isotopes, as in analytical research laboratories, in nuclear medical applications, in medical X-ray imaging, in nuclear power-stations, or in non-destructive testing of materials by ionizing radiation. They need to know their received radiation dose and need to be warned when threshold values are exceeded. Another area where personal radiation doses are important is in the exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light (UV-A , UV-B, and UV-C). Dose detection can be helpful for skin protection and damage prevention.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Sensors and actuators, Sensors and actuators, Radiation, Radiation protection
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High-Altitude Hydration System

Multiple methods of keeping water from freezing can be used by law enforcement personnel, skiers, and campers, and underwater by military personnel.

Three methods are being developed for keeping water from freezing during high-altitude climbs so that mountaineers can remain hydrated. Three strategies have been developed. At the time of this reporting two needed to be tested in the field and one was conceptual.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Water, Human factors, Needs assessment, Research and development
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Eye, Ear, and Skin Scope

The handheld digital device has three attachable lenses for ear, eye, and skin imaging.

A handheld, digitized ophthalmo scope, otoscope, or dermoscope takes digital images and video, and transmits the images to patients’ electronic medical records and/or to physicians for remote diagnosis. The device can be used for retinal (ophthalmoscopy), ear (otoscopy), or skin (dermatoscopy) imaging.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Diagnostics, Medical, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Diagnosis, Diseases, Medical equipment and supplies
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Enhancing Tumor Drug Delivery by Laser-Activated Vascular Barrier Disruption

Photodynamic therapy is used to eradicate tumor tissue and provide enhanced drug delivery.

An obstacle to successful cancer drug therapy is the existence of drug delivery barriers, which result in insufficient and heterogeneous drug delivery to the tumor tissue. This drug delivery problem not only limits the clinical application of existing chemotherapeutics, but also decreases the effectiveness of many new drugs under development. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a modality involving the combination of a photo-sensitizer and laser light, is an established cancer therapy. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of vascular-targeting PDT in eradicating tumor tissue, and modifying vascular barrier function for enhanced drug delivery.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Drug Delivery, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Lasers & Laser Systems, Photonics, Lasers, Lasers, Cardiovascular system, Diseases, Medical equipment and supplies, Pharmaceuticals
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Fast, Quantitative Diagnostic Reader for Multiple Medical Tests

Any test that attenuates light is a candidate for use with the device — potentially thousands of different tests.

While most physicians have easy access to lab tests, those tests can be slow and expensive. Consumer versions of tests are inaccurate and have limited scope, and often involve sending a sample to a lab. Physicians, emergency rooms, EMTs, patients, visiting nurses, and caregivers may all need access to quick, accurate tests without waiting for results and making callbacks. Some chronic tests require the mixing of reagents, and so are difficult to perform at home.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Diagnostics, Medical, Diagnosis, Medical equipment and supplies, Test equipment and instrumentation, Test procedures
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Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

Cells can be cultured and sampled with minimal human intervention.

A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Diagnostics, Medical, Biological sciences, Test equipment and instrumentation
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Fabrication and Modification of Nanoporous Silicon Particles

Biodegradable drug carriers allow sustained drug release for days or even weeks.

Silicon-based nanoporous particles as biodegradable drug carriers are advantageous in permeation, controlled release, and targeting. The use of biodegradable nanoporous silicon and silicon dioxide, with proper surface treatments, allows sustained drug release within the target site over a period of days, or even weeks, due to selective surface coating. A variety of surface treatment protocols are available for silicon-based particles to be stabilized, functionalized, or modified as required. Coated polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains showed the effective depression of both plasma protein adsorption and cell attachment to the modified surfaces, as well as the advantage of long circulating.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Drug Delivery, Medical, Coatings Colorants and Finishes, Coatings, colorants, and finishes, Pharmaceuticals, Silicon alloys
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Electrochemical Detection of Multiple Bioprocess Analytes

Key analytes can be detected using sample volumes of only 100 mL.

An apparatus that includes highly miniaturized thin-film electrochemical sensor array has been demonstrated as a prototype of instruments for simultaneous detection of multiple substances of interest (analytes) and measurement of acidity or alkalinity in bioprocess streams. Measurements of pH and of concentrations of nutrients and wastes in cell-culture media, made by use of these instruments, are to be used as feedback for optimizing the growth of cells or the production of desired substances by the cultured cells. The apparatus is designed to utilize samples of minimal volume so as to minimize any perturbation of monitored processes.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Sensors, Downsizing, Biological sciences, Product development, Biomaterials, Test equipment and instrumentation
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Custom Assembly Helps Create Medical-Grade Saline in Space

BioConnect® bag and tubing assemblies Cole-Parmer Instrument Vernon Hills, IL 800-323-4340 www.coleparmer.com

BioConnect custom bag and tubing assemblies supplied the materials and services to catalyze the production of a prototype for the Intravenous Fluid Generation (IV Gen) technology demonstration on the International Space Station. Funded through NASA’s Human Research Program, a team from NASA’s Glenn Research Center (Cleveland, OH) and ZIN Technologies (Cleveland) seeks to produce medical-grade saline solution in a zero-gravity environment. If successful, the process solves the challenge of packing IV solution that expires during the shuttle cycle, and alleviates mass and volume storage constraints.

Posted in: Application Briefs, Medical, Medical equipment and supplies, Assembling
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Zinc-Doped Tricalcium Phosphate Ceramic for Surgical Implants

This material exhibits an osteogenesis-promoting effect without toxicity, making it suitable as a surgical implant.

A ceramic body consisting of the phases of tricalcium phosphate and/or hydroxyapatite provides biocompatibility with hard tissues. When such a ceramic body is implanted in a bone, direct connection is formed between the bone and the ceramic body without intervention of any fibrous connective tissues. This zinc-containing or zinc-doped ceramic material mainly consists of tricalcium phosphate and is suitable as a ceramic material for biomedical use. In particular, the material provides surgical implant materials for hard tissue consisting of zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate to promote bone formation by releasing zinc in the body.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Coatings & Adhesives, Materials, Bio-Medical, Implants & Prosthetics, Medical, Prostheses and implants, Biomaterials, Calcium, Ceramics, Materials properties, Zinc alloys
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