Special Coverage

Converting from Hydraulic Cylinders to Electric Actuators
Automating Optimization and Design Tasks Across Disciplines
Vibration Tables Shake Up Aerospace and Car Testing
Supercomputer Cooling System Uses Refrigerant to Replace Water
Computer Chips Calculate and Store in an Integrated Unit
Electron-to-Photon Communication for Quantum Computing
Mechanoresponsive Healing Polymers
Variable Permeability Magnetometer Systems and Methods for Aerospace Applications
Evaluation Standard for Robotic Research

More-Realistic Digital Modeling of a Human Body

A MATLAB computer program has been written to enable improved (relative to an older program) modeling of a human body for purposes of designing space suits and other hardware with which an astronaut must interact. The older program implements a kinematic model based on traditional anthropometric measurements that do provide important volume and surface information. The present program generates a three-dimensional (3D) whole-body model from 3D body-scan data. The program utilizes thin-plate spline theory to reposition the model without need for additional scans.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Software, CAD, CAM, and CAE, Computer software and hardware, Anatomy, Anthropometrics, Kinematics, Spacesuits
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Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within ±0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in “Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium” (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Measurements, Biological sciences, Technical review, Test equipment and instrumentation
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Magnetic Plungerless Injection System

This system provides an enclosed and completely sealed system that preserves sterility, and both injects and extracts liquid or gas substances.

The Magnetic Plungerless Injection System (MPIS) was invented to enhance the therapeutic value and market availability of parenterally delivered pharmaceuticals and vaccines. The MPIS is a mechanical arrangement of a proprietary single-dosage cartridge and a magnetic actuator, and is a combination of the storage and the injector/extractor (syringe). The design answers many questions raised by the existing hypodermic syringe.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Drug Delivery, Medical, Sensors and actuators, Medical equipment and supplies, Product development, Pharmaceuticals, Pistons
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Exact Dose Dispensing Closure for Semi-Solids

This device replaces a conventional tube cap and enables a user to dispense an exact dose.

A novel closure technology now makes it possible to consistently squeeze an exact dose of semi-solids from a tube by means of a 180-degree rotating closure. It has potential uses in pharmaceutical transdermal and oral applications, as well as glue dispensing, semi-solid food dispensing, and paint dispensing. Other potential applications are exact dose dispensing of prescription toothpaste, food condiments, or cosmetic products such as sunscreen creams and skin care formulations.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Drug Delivery, Medical, Measurements, Product development, Containers, Adhesives and sealants, Pharmaceuticals
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Graphite Non-Wovens as Functional Layers in Diagnostic Test Kits

Blood-handling diagnostic test strips can be used for diabetes testing and monitoring, and testing for other diseases.

The separation of serum or plasma from whole blood is of overriding importance in clinical chemistry. In particular, many diagnostic detection reactions of blood components proceed without impairment only after the red blood corpuscles have been separated off. This particularly applies to color reactions that are evaluated either by reflectometry or visually, or also electrochemically.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Coatings & Adhesives, Materials, Bio-Medical, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Fluids and secretions, Medical equipment and supplies, Graphite, Test equipment and instrumentation
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Modular Electronic Air Sterilization Technology

This germicidal irradiation system eliminates airborne bacteria, molds, and viruses in one pass.

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) technologies are being used as infection control devices, primarily in healthcare facilities. No standard exists, but the dose of UV and the airflow are critical to ensuring all contaminated air is treated. The UVGI process is mainly influenced by the microorganism population, the irradiation intensity, and the intimate exposure time to the lamps. This new technology enables the system to increase the intensity field or to improve the inactivation process, without adding more energy or increasing the output efficiency of the lamps.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Bio-Medical, Medical, Air pollution, Bacteria, Medical equipment and supplies, Radiation
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Quantifying Therapeutic and Diagnostic Efficacy in 2D Microvascular Images

VESGEN is a newly automated, userinteractive program that maps and quantifies the effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on microvascular form and function. VESGEN analyzes two-dimensional, black and white vascular images by measuring important vessel morphology parameters. This software guides the user through each required step of the analysis process via a concise graphical user interface (GUI). There are control options ranging from “one-click” analysis given a primary output, to step-by-step control over each image and algorithm used in an analysis. An option is provided to select a vascular tissue type, which determines the general collections of algorithms, intermediate images, and output images and measurements that will be produced. The UI automatically restructures itself to provide customized user controls for studying the requested type of tissue.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Diagnostics, Medical, Software, Mathematical models, Imaging and visualization, Cardiovascular system, Human machine interface (HMI), Medical equipment and supplies
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Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

Lightweight and portable systems can be deployed to provide medical-grade water.

A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwavebased, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 ºC. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Water reclamation, Bacteria, Production, Radiation, Spacecraft
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Reliability and Validity of a Prototype Fluid Intake Monitor

Fluid intake monitors are designed to ensure that soldiers consume recommended amounts of water.

Maintaining adequate hydration is an important part of maintaining health, especially under extreme operational and environmental conditions where medical assistance might not be readily available. One approach to measuring the amount of fluid consumed is through the use of Fluid Intake Monitor (FIM) technologies to monitor fluid consumption. These devices can be used to ensure that warfighters consume recommended/ appropriate amounts of water, and to tailor logistical support to actual water needs, as water is expensive to transport.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Sensors and actuators, Water, Logistics, Personnel, Military vehicles and equipment
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A Finite-Element Model for Evaluation of Middle Ear Mechanics

This model can be used in reconstruction of the link between the eardrum and the inner ear.

In conductive hearing loss cases, 59% involve defects of the incus. For efficient restoration of hearing, the defective incus is normally removed and the mechanical link between the eardrum and inner ear is reconstructed. In cases of incus defects, the reconstruction is normally of the form of a rod, positioned to connect the malleus handle or eardrum directly to the cochlea oval window. A more promising approach to prosthesis design is to reconstruct the chain along more physiologically relevant lines. It has been shown that excellent reconstruction of the ossicular chain can be achieved using a generic incus shape. In a series of in vitro studies, it was shown that secure attachment of the prosthesis to the stapes and malleus, with ionomeric cement, could restore hearing within 10 dB of the original frequency response. This study attempts to model these in vitro findings using a finite element computer model. The goal of the study is to produce a computer model that can be used to simulate different forms of attachment to the prosthesis.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Software, Finite element analysis, Prostheses and implants, Sound quality
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