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### Issue Archive

# Estimating Dust and Water Ice Content of the Martian Atmosphere From THEMIS Data

Tuesday, 13 March 2007

Researchers at JPL and Arizona State University conducted a comparative study of three candidate algorithms for estimating components of the Martian atmosphere, using raw (uncalibrated) data collected by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). THEMIS is an instrument onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft that acquires image data in five visible and nine infrared (IR) wavelength bands. The algorithms under study used data collected from eight of the nine IR bands to estimate the dust and water ice content of the atmosphere. Such an algorithm could be used in onboard data processing to trigger other algorithms that search for features of scientific interest and to reduce the volume of data transmitted to Earth.

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# Computing a Stability Spectrum by Use of the HHT

Tuesday, 13 March 2007

Unlike in the predecessor method, the mathematical sign of the damping is retained.
The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is part of the mathematical basis of a method of calculating a stability spectrum. This method can be regarded as an extended and improved version of a prior HHT-based method of calculating a damping spectrum. In the prior method, information on positive damping (which leads to stability) and negative damping (which leads to instability) becomes mixed into a single squared damping loss factor. Hence, there is no way to distinguish between stability and instability by examining a damping spectrum. In contrast, in the present stability-spectrum method, information on the mathematical sign of the damping is retained, making it possible to identify regions of instability in a spectrum. This method is expected to be especially useful for analyzing vibration- test data for the purpose of predicting vibrational instabilities in structures (e.g., flutter in airplane wings).

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# Single-Point Access to Data Distributed on Many Processors

Tuesday, 13 March 2007

A description of the functions and data structures is defined that would be necessary to implement the Chapel concept of distributions, domains, allocation, access, and interfaces to the compiler for transformations from Chapel source to their run-time implementation for these concepts. A complete set of object-oriented operators is defined that enables one to access elements of a distributed array through regular arithmetic index sets, giving the programmer the illusion that all the elements are collocated on a single processor. This means that arbitrary regions of the arrays can be fragmented and distributed across multiple processors with a single point of access. This is important because it can significantly improve programmer productivity by allowing the programmers to concentrate on the high-level details of the algorithm without worrying about the efficiency and communication details of the underlying representation.

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# Special Semaphore Scheme for UHF Spacecraft Communications

Friday, 16 February 2007

A semaphore scheme has been devised to satisfy a requirement to enable ultrahigh- frequency (UHF) radio communication between a spacecraft descending from orbit to a landing on Mars and a spacecraft, in orbit about Mars, that relays communications between Earth and the lander spacecraft. There are also two subsidiary requirements: (1) to use UHF transceivers, built and qualified for operation aboard the spacecraft that operate with residual-carrier binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) modulation at a selectable data rate of 8, 32, 128, or 256 kb/s; and (2) to enable low-rate signaling even when received signals become so weak as to prevent communication at the minimum BPSK rate of 8 kHz. The scheme involves exploitation of Manchester encoding, which is used in conjunction with residual-carrier modulation to aid the carrier-tracking loop. By choosing various sequences of 1s, 0s, or 1s alternating with 0s to be fed to the residual- carrier modulator, one would cause the modulator to generate sidebands at a fundamental frequency of 4 or 8 kHz and harmonics thereof. These sidebands would constitute the desired semaphores. In reception, the semaphores would be detected by a software demodulator.

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# Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time

Thursday, 08 February 2007

Measurement data can be analyzed in real time.
A semi-empirical theoretical model and a C++ computer program that implements the model have been developed for use in predicting the noise generated by a rocket or jet engine. The computer program, entitled the Realtime Rocket and Jet Engine Noise Analysis and Prediction Software, is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for real-time prediction and measurement of noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. [The other main subsystem, consisting largely of acoustic instrumentation and electronic hardware, is described in “Wireless Acoustic Measurement System,” which appears elsewhere in this section.

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# Update on EMD and Hilbert-Spectra Analysis of Time Series

Tuesday, 06 February 2007

U.S. Patent 6,381,559 presents further information about the method described in "Analyzing Time Series Using EMD and Hilbert Spectra" (GSC-13817), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 10 (October 2000), page 63. To recapitulate: The method is especially well suited for analyzing time-series data that represent nonstationary and nonlinear physical phenomena. The method is based principally on the concept of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), according to which any complicated signal (as represented by digital samples) can be decomposed into a finite number of functions, called "intrinsic mode functions" (IMFs), that admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms. The local energies and the instantaneous frequencies derived from the IMFs through Hilbert transforms can be used to construct an energy-frequency-time distribution, denoted a Hilbert spectrum. The patent expands on the description in the cited prior article by explaining underlying mathematical principles and describing details of implementation. The patent also describes, as major elements of the method, the options of (1) filtering the original signal by combining a subset of IMFs and (2) fitting a curve to the filtered signal — something that it may not be possible to do with the original signal.

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# Quad-Tree Visual-Calculus Analysis of Satellite Coverage

Tuesday, 06 February 2007

The computational burden is less than in a pixel representation.
An improved method of analysis of coverage of areas of the Earth by a constellation of radio-communication or scientific-observation satellites has been developed. This method is intended to supplant an older method in which the global-coverage- analysis problem is solved from a ground-to-satellite perspective. The older method is suitable for coarse-grained analysis of coverage of a constellation of a few satellites, but the algorithms of the older method are too slow and cumbersome for the large scope of the problem of analysis of coverage of a modern constellation of many satellites intended to provide global coverage all the time. In contrast, the present method provides for rapid and efficient analysis. This method is derived from a satellite-to-ground perspective and involves a unique combination of two techniques for multiresolution representation of map features on the surface of a sphere.

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