White Papers

Oscilloscope Fundamentals

The oscilloscope is arguably one of the most useful tools ever created for use by electronic engineers. In the more than five decades since the modern analog oscilloscope was created, hundreds of useful documents and thousands of articles have been written about what it is, how it works, how to use it, and application-specific examples of the “oscilloscope” in action. It is the purpose of this primer to instead describe digital oscilloscopes, which have for practical purposes replaced their analog predecessors in the vast majority of applications. Covered here is a short description of the oscilloscope’s origins, its transition from analog to digital, types of digital oscilloscopes and their major subsystems, key benchmark specifications, and measurements.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

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Troubleshooting EMI in Embedded Designs

Today, engineers need reliable data fast, and to ensure compliance with regulations for electromagnetic compatibility in the most economical way, appropriate measures must be taken early in the design phase. This paper provides a brief introduction to embedded EMI troubleshooting challenges and how to use a digital oscilloscope to debug the two key culprits of EMI – switching power supplies and power amplifiers. The Rohde & Schwarz R&S®RTO series oscilloscope provides time correlated multi-domain analysis often required to troubleshoot the complex time and frequency domain embedded design challenges.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

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Spherical Plain Bearing

AST Bearings’ website features a variety of white papers covering a range of spherical plain bearings, free of charge. These white papers include spherical plain bearings requiring lubrication (steel-on-steel) and maintenance-free spherical plain bearings, which are broken down into categories according to the sliding contact surfaces: steel-on-PTFE composite material, steel-on- PTFE fabric and steel-on-copper alloy. The white papers offer valuable and detailed information, such as design characteristics, materials, applications, temperatures and more for every product.

Posted in: Mechanical Components, White Papers

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IEC 61131-3 Now in Motion

The IEC 61131-3 standard defines 5 programming languages for PLCs and distributed control systems. More recently, dedicated motion companies such as Trio Motion Technology are incorporating the standard into their motion control hardware. By adding specific functions such as camming, electronic gearing, and interpolated motion the controllers have a widely supported usability on the factory floor. Additionally, such controllers can be very compact in size and low cost making them a good choice for a vast array of machines.

Posted in: Machinery & Automation, White Papers

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HIG™: Combining the Benefits of Inductive and Resistive Heating

Harmonic Inductive Gain (HIG™) is a rapidly growing technology that is changing the game in what has previously been a stagnating technology; inductive heating. HIG utilizes a pulsed output signal rich in high frequency harmonics to deliver an intensely changing magnetic field in place of a sinusoidal signal generated from large currents. This approach allows for efficiency gains that permit air-cooled power supplies and coils to be realized. Modulation of the output pulse allows for precise control over output power with 1W precision regardless of coil configuration, coil type, or load type; affording full flexibility in coil design. The resultant system is incredibly versatile and intelligent offering the same ‘plug and play’ design flexibility as resistive heating while maintaining the highest level of efficiency and reliability available with induction.

Posted in: Manufacturing & Prototyping, White Papers

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3D Printing with FDM: How it Works

A 3D printer is a machine that creates objects from plastic or other materials using an additive manufacturing process. Additive manufacturing produces objects in a succession of layers from the bottom, up. This is the opposite of traditional subtractive manufacturing processes.

Posted in: Manufacturing & Prototyping, White Papers

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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Software Defined Radio has revolutionized electronic systems for a variety of applications that include communications, data acquisition and signal processing. Recently updated, this handbook shows how DDCs (Digital Downconverters), the fundamental building block of software radio, can replace legacy analog receiver designs while offering significant performance, density, and cost benefits.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, White Papers

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