White Papers

R&S® SMB100A, NRP, FSW-K6, ZVL Radar Educational Videos

Welcome to our short video tutorials on how to test radars using Rohde & Schwarz test equipment. Access to most information about radar tests is pretty restricted, as many radar applications are military or secretive industrial research. To show some basic radar tests we have created radar demo tools, which functions at a frequency of 2.45 GHz, which is in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. So tests can be performed in unshielded rooms. The frequencies are also used by radar operating in the ITU "S"-band from 2.3 to 2.5 GHz for air traffic control, weather and marine radar.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

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Envelope Tracking and Digital Pre-Distortion Test Solution for RF Amplifiers

The R&S®SMW200A together with the R&S®FSW is a state of the art testing solution that significantly reduces the required hardware for testing power amplifiers with envelope tracking and/or digital pre-distortion.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

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Fundamentals of Vector Network Analysis Primer

One of the most common measuring tasks in RF engineering involves analysis of circuits (networks). A network analyzer is an instrument that is designed to handle this job with great precision and efficiency. Circuits that can be analyzed using network analyzers range from simple devices such as filters and amplifiers to complex modules used in communications satellites.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

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How Lean Manufacturing Adds Value to PCB Production

In an earlier paper, we established the importance of Design for Manufacturing (DFM) in today’s PCB manufacturing environment. PCBs designed using those techniques typically experience reduced failure rates, cost less to manufacture, and minimize waste during production.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, White Papers

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Bearing selection for low-speed applications

Low-speed applications present design challenges for bearings, just as high-speed applications do. (Uneven wear from intermittent motion, torque uniformity and vibration resistance are a few examples.) A new white paper from Kaydon Bearings, an SKF Group company, looks at the type of bearings typically used in low-speed applications and reviews 10 key performance requirements designers should consider when specifying them.

Posted in: Mechanical Components, White Papers

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The Significance of Critical Cleaning for Solar Module Fabrication

With increased governmental commitments to support renewable energy initiatives, winners and losers in solar module fabrication will be determined more quickly and by a variety of factors. One factor will be the elimination of defects to increase yields in the manufacturing process. Critical cleaning of substrates and superstrates is an essential component in achieving an optimal solar module fabrication process which reduces the cost per watt. Depending on the material being cleaned and the cleaning process employed, various Alconox products, including ALCONOX, DETOJET, LIQUINOX, CITRANOX and CITRAJET, have already been selected by major manufacturers as the critical cleaners of choice to reduce or eliminate manufacturing defects in solar module fabrication and are being employed in additional emerging processes.

Posted in: Manufacturing & Prototyping, White Papers

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Key Procedures and Aqueous Cleaning Agents for Metal and Electronic Component Cleaning

Effective use of aqueous cleaners for electronics and metals hinges on the orchestration of basic variables of cleaning agents and procedures. The terms precision or critical cleaning apply whenever residue can cause a failure in the performance or function of the surface being cleaned. In general industry this includes electronic component cleaning, and surface preparation of metals prior to coating or bonding. Current practice for critical cleaning includes the use of volatile solvents, corrosive chemicals, and aqueous detergents. In today’ hazard-sensitive workplace, however, many companies are re-examining their use of volatile-solvent and corrosive-chemical cleaners. By using the right aqueous cleaning technologies now, it’ possible to minimize hazards without sacrificing critical cleaning performance. Many aqueous cleaners now offer cleaning performance comparable to - or better than solvent cleaning systems.

Posted in: Manufacturing & Prototyping, White Papers

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