White Papers

Spectrum Analyzer Fundamentals – Theory and Operation of Modern Spectrum Analyzers

This primer examines the theory of state-of-the-art spectrum analysis and describes how modern spectrum analyzers are designed and how they work. That is followed by a brief characterization of today's signal generators, which are needed as a stimulus when performing amplifier measurements.

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Introduction into Theory of Direction Finding

Applications of direction finding While direction finding for navigation purposes (referred to as cooperative direction finding) is becoming less important due to the availability of satellite navigation systems, there is a growing requirement for determining the location of emitters as the mobility of communications equipment increases:

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dB or not dB? Everything you ever wanted to know about decibels but were afraid to ask...

True or false: 30 dBm + 30 dBm = 60 dBm? Why does 1% work out to be -40 dB one time but then 0.1 dB or 0.05 dB the next time? These questions sometimes leave even experienced engineers scratching their heads. Decibels are found everywhere, including power levels, voltages, reflection coefficients, noise figures, field strengths and more. What is a decibel and how should we use it in our calculations? This Application Note is intended as a refresher on the subject of decibels.

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Antenna Basics

This white paper describes the basic functionality of antennas. Starting with Hertz's Antenna model followed by a short introduction to the fundamentals of wave propagation, the important general characteristics of an antenna and its associated parameters are explained.

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Evolution of the Modern Receiver in a Crowded Spectrum Environment

The International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunications working group (ITU-R) outlines recommendations for the regulations and procedures for federal radio frequency management. This white paper takes a look at the evolution from the analog spectrum analyzer to the modern digital receiver in line with ITU-R Recommendations. It also gives some examples of the importance of the new architecture in today’s spectrum environment.

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3D Printing Today: How Industry is Using and Benefiting from Additive Manufacturing Technology

Are you currently using or planning to implement 3D printing? Find out how your business compares to the broader industry in this major new study, conducted with NASA Tech Briefs magazine. Among the study's conclusions:

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Symbolic Techniques for Model Code Optimization: FMI Applications

Since its inception, the FMI standard has become the primary method for model transfer and co-simulation, providing a smooth, error-free technique for design engineers to deliver their work without manual integration or resorting to other proprietary tools. At the same time, advanced symbolic technologies have emerged that provide extremely fast auto-generated code for the implementation of dynamic system models and enable advanced analysis applications. This paper describes symbolic techniques employed under the hood for dynamic system model formulation and optimized code generation. One application where the FMI standard has been used is for generating a functional mockup of an automatic transmission from MapleSim, and implementing it in dSPACE's SCALEXIO to perform a full-vehicle, real-time simulation.

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