Next-generation high-temperature thermoelectric-power-generating devices will employ segmented architectures and will have to reliably withstand thermally induced mechanical stresses produced during component fabrication, device assembly, and operation. Thermoelectric materials have typically poor mechanical strength, exhibit brittle behavior, and possess a wide range of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values. As a result, the direct bonding at elevated temperatures of these materials to each other to produce segmented leg components is difficult, and often results in localized microcracking at interfaces and mechanical failure due to the stresses that arise from the CTE mismatch between the various materials. Even in the absence of full mechanical failure, degraded interfaces can lead to increased electrical and thermal resistances, which adversely impact conversion efficiency and power output.

The freestanding segmented Zintl/skutterudite leg fabricated using a Nickel-Graphite Composite- Based Compliant Layer brazed to the metalized surfaces of the Zintl and skutterudite (SKD) segments.
The proposed solution is the insertion of a mechanically compliant layer, with high electrical and thermal conductivity, between the low- and high-temperature segments to relieve thermomechanical stresses during device fabrication and operation. This composite material can be used as a stress-relieving layer between the thermoelectric segments and/or between a thermoelectric segment and a hot- or cold-side interconnect material. The material also can be used as a compliant hot shoe.

Nickel-coated graphite powders were hot-pressed to form a nickel-graphite composite material. A freestanding thermoelectric segmented leg was fabricated by brazing the compliant pad layer between the high-temperature p- Zintl and low-temperature p-SKD TE segments using Cu-Ag braze foils. The segmented leg stack was heated in vacuum under a compressive load to achieve bonding.

The novelty of the innovation is the use of composite material that re duces the thermomechanical stresses encountered in the construction of high-efficiency, high-temperature thermoelectric devices. The compliant pad enables the bonding of dissimilar thermoelectric materials while maintaining the desired electrical and thermal properties essential for efficient device operation. The modulus, CTE, electrical, and thermal conductances of the composite can be controlled by varying the ratio of nickel to graphite.

This work was done by Samad A. Firdosy, Billy Chun-Yip Li, Vilupanur A. Ravi, Jean- Pierre Fleurial, Thierry Caillat, and Harut Anjunyan of Caltech for NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

In accordance with Public Law 96-517, the contractor has elected to retain title to this invention. Inquiries concerning rights for its commercial use should be addressed to:

Innovative Technology Assets Management
Mail Stop 321-123
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109-8099
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


This Brief includes a Technical Support Package (TSP).
Document cover
Nickel-Graphite Composite Compliant Interface and/or Hot Shoe Material

(reference NPO-48621) is currently available for download from the TSP library.

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