altMonocrystal (Stavropol, Russia) has introduced ultra-large 10-inch c-plane epi-ready sapphire substrates. The LED industry continues shifting to larger diameter substrates as it strives to achieve higher cost savings and to increase production throughput of quality LED chips. Sapphire substrates are used for more than 90% of GaN LED chips produced by the industry, including high-brightness devices used for LED lighting products.