Fused Combiners for Power Scaling

A fused fiber combiner is essential for combining multiple laser beams for power scaling. One method to fabricate such a device is to taper a fused fiber bundle, cleave the tapered fiber bundle end and splice it to an output fiber. Therefore, laser beams from multiple fibers are coupled into one fiber.

Figure 6.2. Examples of different combiners fabricated using GPX-3400 (a) 19:1 MM combiner (b) (6+1):1 combiner.

When combining MM beams, such a device requires brightness conservation, low transmission, and good high power handling capability. Figure 6.1 shows typical performance of a 7:1 MM combiner fabricated using a Vytran GPX-3400 Glass Processing System. This combiner combines 7 MM beams with numerical aperture (NA) of

Examples of a 19:1 MM combiner and (6+1):1 combiner are also shown in Figure 6.2. Large count combiners up to over 61 input ports are possible using large filament with a GPX-3400 system. In addition, filament fusion makes it possible to control the degree of fusion via different fusion temperatures to produce lightly fused or fully fused devices, which result in different beam coupling characteristics.

Further power scaling requires that multiple single mode fiber lasers be combined coherently or incoherently. Incoherent beam combining scales up the output power but results in some beam quality loss. Laser brightness is generally degraded in this case.

Figure 7. Power scaling via coherent beam combining.

Coherent beam combining (CBC) not only scales up the output power but also increases the brightness of the laser. To achieve this, individual lasers must meet an in-phase condition before combining. Figure 7 shows an example of CBC of two fiber lasers in all-fiber and all-passive configuration using a 2x2 fused fiber coupler. In this case, the combined output power from one exit power is 101.5W[5].


High-performance fused fiber components are essential for high-power fiber lasers. Filament fusion technology has been broadly deployed for several years due to its precise temperature control, uniformity and the high reliability of the resulting splices and components. Some examples of devices that can be produced with

this technology include splices, mode-field adapters, end caps and combiners. These components can be produced in high volumes with reliability and consistency, enabling mass production of demanding high-power CW fiber lasers as well as high-peak-power ultrafast lasers.

This article was written by Jean-Michel Pelaprat, CEO, and Dr. Baishi Wang, Director, Vytran, LLC (Morganville, NJ). For more information, contact Mr. Pelaprat at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., or visit http://info.hotims. com/45599-200.


Photonics Tech Briefs Magazine

This article first appeared in the January, 2013 issue of Photonics Tech Briefs Magazine.

Read more articles from the archives here.

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  2. D. Kliner et. al. “4-kW fiber laser for metal cutting and welding”, Proc. of SPIE 7914, Fiber Lasers VIII: Technology, Systems, and Applications, edited by Jay W. Dawson (2011)
  3. A. D. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing, Springer, (2005)
  4. B. S. Wang and E. Mies, “Review of Fabrication Techniques for Fused Fiber Components for Fiber Lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, Fiber Lasers VI: Technology, Systems, and Applications, edited by D. V. Gapontsev et. al., (2009)
  5. B. S. Wang and Anthony Sanchez, “Allfiber passive coherent combining of high power lasers,” Opt. Eng., 50(11), 111606 (2011)