Integrated microbatteries have been proposed to satisfy an anticipated need for long-life, low-rate primary batteries, having volumes less than 1 cubic millimeter, to power electronic circuitry in implantable medical devices. In one contemplated application, such a battery would be incorporated into a tubular hearing-aid device to be installed against an eardrum. This device is based on existing tube structures that are FDA approved for use in human ears. Click here to read more .

Two reliable fault-tolerant coding schemes have been proposed for state machines that are used in field-programmable gate arrays and application-specific integrated circuits, to implement sequential logic functions. The schemes apply to strings of bits in state registers, which are typically implemented in practice as assemblies of flip-flop circuits. The proposed fault-tolerant coding schemes are intended to prevent the state machine from going into an error or hang state when a single-event upset (SEU) occurs.

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