An infrared web moisture sensor , which is substantially temperature- and basis-weight insensitive comprises a source of infrared radiation for directing an infrared beam through the web, and an infrared detecting unit on the other side of the web that measures the transmission of the beam through the web at three separate wavelength regions. The transmission in the first wavelength region is primarily sensitive to the moisture content of the web. A process control computer controls devices that add moisture to portions of the web or selectively dry portions of the web, thereby producing a web having a desired moisture content.

A liquid level sensor  comprises a light source in the form of a semiconductor device, a light sensor also in the form of a semiconductor device, and an optical element arranged to transmit light from the light source, receive reflected light, and transmit it to the light sensor. The liquid level sensor further comprises a carrier having gas-filled cavities in which the light source and the light sensor are mounted.

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