A solid-state oxygen microsensor  measures the potential difference (EMF) generated by two electrodes deposited on a solid oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte and located in a known and preferably constant temperature gradient in the same ambient atmosphere. The microsensor is used for combustion systems to maintain and improve combustion efficiency levels and exhaust gas cleanliness.

A rugged oxygen microsensor  is freestanding and isolated from the silicon substrate in combination with a counter electrode and a heater in a bowtie configuration. The sensor combines an integral heater made from platinum that is deposited on a silicon wafer as a thin film. The sensor and heater are supported on the silicon wafer by a thin layer of silicon nitride.

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