Measuring gas emissions from Mount Yasur in the island nation of Vanuatu. (Simon Carn)

Before volcanoes erupt, there are often warning signs. Using remote sensing to detect rising carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions without endangering people or equipment would greatly increase human understanding of volcanoes.

A research team has taken high-resolution, sensitive spaceborne measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide at the kilometer scale. This data reveals that measurements from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite’s sensors provide insights into how carbon links everything on Earth.