An increasing number of parts are designed with digital control interfaces, including phase shifters and variable attenuators. When designing an antenna array in which each antenna has independent amplitude and phase control, the number of digital control lines that must be set simultaneously can grow very large. Use of a parallel interface would require separate line drivers, more parts, and thus additional failure points. A convenient form of control where single-phase shifters or attenuators could be set or the whole set could be programmed with an update rate of 100 Hz is needed to solve this problem.
A digitial interface board with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) can simultaneously control an essentially arbitrary number of digital control lines with a serial command interface requiring only three wires. A small set of short, high-level commands provides a simple programming interface for an external controller. Parity bits are used to validate the control commands. Output timing is controlled within the FPGA to allow for rapid update rates of the phase shifters and attenuators.
This technology has been used to set and monitor eight 5-bit control signals via a serial UART (universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter) interface. The digital interface board controls the phase and amplitude of the signals for each element in the array. A host computer running Agilent VEE sends commands via serial UART connection to a Xilinx VirtexII FPGA. The commands are decoded, and either outputs are set or telemetry data is sent back to the host computer describing the status and the current phase and amplitude settings.
This technology is an integral part of a closed-loop system in which the angle of arrival of an X-band uplink signal is detected and the appropriate phase shifts are applied to the Ka-band downlink signal to electronically steer the array back in the direction of the uplink signal. It will also be used in the nonbeam- steering case to compensate for phase shift variations through power amplifiers. The digital interface board can be used to set four 5-bit phase shifters and four 5-bit attenuators and monitor their current settings. Additionally, it is useful outside of the closed-loop system for beam-steering alone.
When the VEE program is started, it prompts the user to initialize variables (to zero) or skip initialization. After that, the program enters into a continuous loop waiting for the telemetry period to elapse or a button to be pushed. A telemetry request is sent when the telemetry period is elapsed (every five seconds). Pushing one of the set or reset buttons will send the appropriate command. When a command is sent, the interface status is returned, and the user will be notified by a pop-up window if any error has occurred. The program runs until the End Program button is depressed.