The inductive monitoring system (IMS) is a system of computer hardware and software for automated monitoring of the performance, operational condition, physical integrity, and other aspects of the "health" of a complex engineering system (e.g., an industrial process line or a spacecraft). The input to the IMS consists of streams of digitized readings from sensors in the monitored system. The IMS determines the type and amount of any deviation of the monitored system from a nominal or normal ("healthy") condition on the basis of a comparison between (1) vectors constructed from the incoming sensor data and (2) corresponding vectors in a database of nominal or normal behavior. The term "inductive" reflects the use of a process reminiscent of traditional mathematical induction to "learn" about normal operation and build the nominal-condition database. The IMS offers two major advantages over prior computational monitoring systems: The computational burden of the IMS is significantly smaller, and there is no need for abnormal-condition sensor data for training the IMS to recognize abnormal conditions.
The figure schematically depicts the relationships among the computational processes effected by the IMS. Training sensor data are gathered during normal operation of the monitored system, detailed computational simulation of operation of the monitored system, or both. The training data are formed into vectors that are used to generate the database. The vectors in the database are clustered into regions that represent normal or nominal operation. Once the database has been generated, the IMS compares the vectors of incoming sensor data with vectors representative of the clusters. The monitored system is deemed to be operating normally or abnormally, depending on whether the vector of incoming sensor data is or is not, respectively, sufficiently close to one of the clusters. For this purpose, a distance between two vectors is calculated by a suitable metric (e.g., Euclidean distance) and "sufficiently close" signifies lying at a distance less than a specified threshold value.
It must be emphasized that although the IMS is intended to detect off-nominal or abnormal performance or health, it is not necessarily capable of performing a thorough or detailed diagnosis. Limited diagnostic information may be available under some circumstances. For example, the distance of a vector of incoming sensor data from the nearest cluster could serve as an indication of the severity of a malfunction. The identity of the nearest cluster may be a clue as to the identity of the malfunctioning component or subsystem.
It is possible to decrease the IMS computation time by use of a combination of cluster-indexing and -retrieval methods. For example, in one method, the distances between each cluster and two or more reference vectors can be used for the purpose of indexing and retrieval. The clusters are sorted into a list according to these distance values, typically in ascending order of distance. When a set of input data arrives and is to be tested, the data are first arranged as an ordered set (that is, a vector). The distances from the input vector to the reference points are computed. The search of clusters from the list can then be limited to those clusters lying within a certain distance range from the input vector; the computation time is reduced by not searching the clusters at a greater distance.
This work was done by David L. Iverson of Ames Research Center.
This invention is owned by NASA and a patent application has been filed. Inquiries concerning rights for the commercial use of this invention should be addressed to
the Ames Technology Partnerships Division at (650) 604-2954.
Refer to ARC-15058-1.