Contaminated Water Treatment

This method offers a way of processing and recycling liquids to remove contaminants. The two-step process provides a contaminant treatment pouch, called a “urine cell” or “contaminant cell,” that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements.

In-Situ Removal of PCBs from Sediment Systems

A method for the in-situ removal of PCBs found in sediment systems consists of a redeployable polymer blanket that attracts and absorbs PCBs. A two-step approach removes and treats the PCBs. The blanket can then be decontaminated, refilled with fresh solvent, and deployed again for use in rivers, streams, harbors, lakes, and canals.

Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS) for Paints

The AMTS treats PCBs in paints, and consists of a solvent solution that contains an activated zero-valent metal. AMTS is first applied to the painted surface using a spray-on or wipeon technique. The solution then extracts the PCBs from the paint. The extracted PCBs react with the microscale activated metal, and are degraded into benign byproducts.

Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI)

The EZVI process involves placing nanoscale zero-valent iron particles into a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable oil-in-water emulsion. Contaminants are pulled into the emulsion where the contaminant reacts with the zero-valent iron. The contaminants are degraded into ethene and other hydrocarbons that are broken down through biological activities in the subsurface.

Plant Chlorophyll Content Meter

A handheld plant stress detector measures the amount of chlorophyll in foliage, based upon light reflected from the plant. It collects light reflected from a target plant, separates it into two different wavelength bands (red and infrared), and analyzes the reflected light to determine plant physiological stress. It is used to learn how leaf chlorophyll content is affected by nutrients, biological influences, herbicides, and other environmental impacts.

NASA Tech Briefs Magazine

This article first appeared in the December, 2014 issue of NASA Tech Briefs Magazine.

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