Critical elements in the operation of electric drive systems are power electronics and power semiconductor packages. Improving thermal management of power electronics can help reduce the cost, weight, and volume of electric drive systems, and thus increase market acceptance. The power semiconductor packaging must provide the necessary electrical connections, while at the same time enabling heat removal from the semiconductor devices such as insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and diodes.
An integrated three-dimensional module heat exchanger was developed for power electronics cooling. The design is fully integrated with a semiconductor package. Heat transfer happens from the top, bottom, and sides, ensuring maximum cooling. The design is stackable to form common power electronics building blocks, and is scalable and modular.
The integrated module heat exchanger consists of the following elements: cooling fins, heat spread plate, semiconductor package, space for bus bars, and control electronics or distributed capacitors. Optional features include heat spread tip fins and thermal insulators. Designs for liquid- and air-cooled systems are included as well. Preliminary finite element analysis has shown significant benefits relative to volume and cost when compared to existing cooling technologies for power semiconductor packages.
While the design was based on the needs of vehicle systems manufacturers, application of the technology is not limited. Other applications include variable speed motor drives for energy efficiency, solar power and microscale grid power electronics, wind power generation electronics, and others.