NASA’s Langley Research Center has developed a plenoptic camera that can image two-dimensional (or in some cases, three-dimensional) spatial information as well as color, where in the final image, each pixel contains a spectrum of the imaged scene.
Plenoptic technology measures image brightness as well as the direction of the light rays. This enables new imaging capabilities such as refocusing the acquired image to different depths and viewing the same scene from slightly different perspectives. As an imaging pyrometer, the camera can measure 2D temperature (and possibly emissivity) distributions.
The camera incorporates an array of 470 × 360 microlenses, with each microlens producing an image onto a 14 × 14-pixel array. Specific colors or spectra can be continuous or arbitrarily determined and can be easily and inexpensively modified. Modifications of the collected spectra can be useful for different applications where the emitted light needs to be analyzed to determine qualitative or quantitative information about a flow, object, or scene. The sensor can measure fluid, mechanical, thermodynamic, or structural properties of gases, liquids, and solids.