Buzz Aldrin standing on the stark surface of the Moon. The towering gas pillars of the Eagle Nebula. The rocky, rust-colored expanses of Mars. Among NASA’s successes in space exploration have been the indelible images the Agency’s efforts have returned to Earth. From the Hubble Space Telescope to the Hasselblad cameras in the hands of Apollo astronauts, many of NASA’s missions involve technologies that deliver unprecedented views of our universe, providing fuel for scientific inquiry and the imagination.

Images like these of (clockwise from top left) the Eagle Nebula, Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, the Martian landscape, and an astronaut self-portrait taken during a spacewalk bring the wonders of space exploration down to Earth.
Less known than Hubble’s galactic vistas or the Mars rovers’ panoramic landscapes is the impact NASA has had on the era of digital photography on Earth. While the first digital camera was built by Eastman Kodak in 1975, the first to actually develop the concept of the digital camera was Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer Eugene Lally, who in the 1960s described the use of mosaic photosensors to digitize light signals and produce still images. During the following decades, NASA continued the work of developing small, light, and robust image sensors practical for use in the extreme environment of space.

In the 1990s, a JPL team led by Eric Fossum researched ways of improving complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors in order to significantly miniaturize cameras on interplanetary spacecraft yet maintain scientific image quality. An image sensor contains an array of photodetectors called pixels that collect single particles of light, or photons. (The word “pixel”—short for picture element—was first published in 1965 by JPL engineer Frederic Billingsley.) The photons entering the pixel are converted to electrons, forming an electrical signal a processor then assembles into a picture. CMOS sensors represented a number of appealing qualities for NASA compared to the charge coupled device (CCD), the prevalent image sensor at the time. Crafted by the same process used to build microprocessors and other semiconductor devices, the CMOS image sensors can be manufactured more easily than CCDs and at lower cost. The CMOS sensor components are integrated onto a single chip, unlike CCDs, which have off-chip components. This integrated setup consumes as much as 100 times less power than CCDs, allows for smaller camera systems, and can be designed with radiation-hard pixel architectures for space applications.

At JPL, Fossum invented the CMOS active-pixel sensor (CMOS-APS), which integrates active amplifiers inside each pixel that boost the electrical output generated by the collected photons. The CMOS-APS featured improved image quality over passive-pixel sensors (without amplifiers) and included a number of on-chip functions, providing for complete miniature imaging systems that operate quickly with low power demands. JPL validated the technology through a series of prototypes.


Fossum realized the CMOS-APS technology would be useful not only for imaging in space but on Earth as well. In 1995, he, his colleague and then-wife Sabrina Kemeny, and three other JPL engineers founded Photobit, based in Pasadena, California. Photobit exclusively licensed the CMOS-APS technology from JPL, becoming the first company to commercialize CMOS image sensors.

“We saw an expanding number of applications for these miniaturized cameras,” says Roger Panicacci, one of Photobit’s founders. The company quickly positioned itself on the cutting edge of the field of CMOS imaging, and by June 2000, it had shipped 1 million sensors for use in popular Web cameras, machine vision solutions, dental radiography, pill cameras, motion-capture, and automotive applications. The company was featured in Spinoff 1999 and founders Fossum, Panicacci, Kemeny, and Robert Nixon were inducted into the Space Foundation’s Space Technology Hall of Fame that same year.