According to a recent study, functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) may predict which high-risk, 6-month-old infants will develop autism spectrum disorder by age 2 years.

Autism affects roughly one out of every 68 children in the United States. Siblings of children diagnosed with autism are at higher risk of developing the disorder. Although early diagnosis and intervention can help improve outcomes for children with autism, there currently is no method to diagnose the disease before children show symptoms.

Previous findings suggest that brain-related changes occur in autism before behavioral symptoms emerge. If future studies confirm these results, detecting brain differences may enable physicians to diagnose and treat autism earlier than they do today.

Researchers studied the brain's functional connectivity — how regions of the brain work together during different tasks and during rest. Using fcMRI, the researchers scanned 59 high-risk, 6-month-old infants while they slept naturally. The children were deemed high-risk because they had older siblings with autism. At age 2 years, 11 of the 59 infants in this group were diagnosed with autism.

The researchers used machine learning to look for differences that could separate the neuroimaging results into two groups — autism or non-autism — and predict future diagnoses. One analysis predicted each infant's future diagnosis by using the other 58 infants’ data to train the computer program. This method identified 82 percent of the infants who would go on to have autism (9 out of 11), and it correctly identified all of the infants who did not develop autism. In another analysis that tested how well the results could apply to other cases, the computer program predicted diagnoses for groups of 10 infants, at an accuracy rate of 93 percent.

Overall, the team found 974 functional connections in the brains of 6-month-olds that were associated with autism-related behaviors. They propose that a single neuroimaging scan may accurately predict autism among high-risk infants, but caution that the findings need to be replicated in a larger group.

For more information, contact Linda Huynh or Robert Bock 301-496-5133 or Jules Asher 301-443-4536.

Photonics & Imaging Technology Magazine

This article first appeared in the September, 2017 issue of Photonics & Imaging Technology Magazine.

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