The 2D Image Simulation feature in CODE V® 9.7 from Optical Research Associates (Pasadena, CA) allows users to visualize overall performance and communicate design tradeoffs to non-optical personnel. The function displays an object as it would appear when imaged by an optical system, taking into account diffraction, lens aberration, distortion, relative illumination, and blurring. Image orientation for complex folded systems also is determined. Results may be saved in BMP, JPEG, and PNG formats. Other features include enhanced ID Partial Coherence function and a Gaussian Quadrature Radial Grid for defining ray sets speeds optimization of systems having circular or vignetted circular pupils.