This invention relates to surface modification of porosified silicon (pSi) structures with poly(alkylene) glycols for the purpose of controlled degradation of the silicon matrix and tailored release of encapsulated substances for biomedical applications. The pSi structures are currently used in diverse biomedical applications including bio-molecular screening, optical bio-sensoring, and drug delivery by means of injectable/orally administered carriers and implantable devices.
The size of the pores and the surface chemistry of the pSi structure can be controlled during the microfabrication process and thereafter. A fine regulation of the degradation kinetics of mesoporous silicon structures is of fundamental importance. Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) represent the major category of surface modifying agents used in classical drug delivery systems and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. PEGylation enables avoidance of RES uptake, thus prolonging circulation time of intravenously injectable nanovectors. PEG molecules demonstrate little toxicity and immunogenicity, and are cleared from the body through the urine (molecular weight, MW30kDa).
The invention focuses on the possibility of finely tuning the degradation kinetics of the pSi nanovectors and other structures through surface conjugation of PEGs with various backbone lengths/MWs. To prove the concept, pSi nanovectors were covalently conjugated to seven PEGs with MW from 245 to 5,000 Da and their degradation kinetics in physiologically relevant media (phosphate buffer saline, PBS pH7.4, and fetal bovine serum) was assessed by the elemental analysis of the Si using inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The conjugation of the PEG with lowest MW to the nanovectors surface did not induce any change in the degradation kinetics in serum, but inhibited degradation and consequently the release of orthosilicic acid into buffer. When PEGs with the longer chains were evaluated, Si mass loss from the nanovectors was slowed down, and the PEGylated structures were almost fully degraded within 18–24 hours in serum and within 48 hours in PBS. The most dramatic effect was observed for high MW PEGs 3,400 and 5,000 Da, which prominently inhibited the degradation of the systems, with complete degradation achieved only after four days. For these PEGs, during the early stages of the degradation, there was a “lag” period of little or no Si mass loss from the nanovector.
The obtained profiles were in agreement with the erosion of the nanovector surface as observed by scanning electron microscopy.
This work was done by Biana Godin Vilentchouk and Mauro Ferrari of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Biomedical Engineering, for Johnson Space Center. For further information, contact the JSC Innovation Partnerships Office at (281) 483-3809.