A custom laboratory electronic timer circuit measures the durations of successive cycles of nominally highly stable input clock signals in as many as eight channels, for the purpose of statistically quantifying the small instabilities of these signals. The measurement data generated by this timer are sent to a personal computer running software that integrates the measurements to form a phase residual for each channel and uses the phase residuals to compute Allan variances for each channel. (The Allan variance is a standard statistical measure of instability of a clock signal.) Like other laboratory clock-cycle-measuring circuits, this timer utilizes an externally generated reference clock signal having a known frequency (100 MHz) much higher than the frequencies of the input clock signals (between 100 and 120 Hz). It counts the number of reference- clock cycles that occur between successive rising edges of each input clock signal of interest, thereby affording a measurement of the input clocksignal period to within the duration (10 ns) of one reference clock cycle. Unlike typical prior laboratory clockcycle- measuring circuits, this timer does not skip some cycles of the input clock signals. The non-cycle-skipping feature is an important advantage because in applications that involve integration of measurements over long times for characterizing nominally highly stable clock signals, skipping cycles can degrade accuracy.
The timer includes a field-programmable gate array that functions as a 20-bit counter running at the reference clock rate of 100 MHz. The timer also includes eight 20-bit latching circuits — one for each channel — at the output terminals of the counter. Each transition of an input signal from low to high causes the corresponding latching circuit to latch the count at that instant. Each such transition also sets a status flip-flop circuit to indicate the presence of the latched count. A microcontroller reads the values of all eight status flip flops and then reads the latched count for each channel for which the flip-flop indicates the presence of a count. Reading the count for each channel automatically causes the flipflop of that channel to be reset. The microcontroller places the counts in time order, identifies the channel number for each count, and transmits these data to the personal computer.
This work was done by Steven Cole of Caltech for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For further information, access the Technical Support Package (TSP) free on-line at www.techbriefs.com/tsp under the Electronics/ Computers category.
The software used in this innovation is available for commercial licensing. Please contact Don Hart of the California Institute of Technology at (818) 393-3425. Refer to NPO-40233.