Recent advances in quantum information theory have inspired an explosion of interest in new quantum algorithms for solving hard computational (quantum and non-quantum) problems. The basic principle of quantum computation is that the quantum properties can be used to represent structure data, and that quantum mechanisms can be devised and built to perform operations with this data. Three basic “non-classical” properties of quantum mechanics — superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability — were main reasons for optimism about capabilities of quantum computers that promised simultaneous processing of large massifs of highly correlated data. Unfortunately, these advantages of quantum mechanics came with a high price. One major problem is keeping the components of the computer in a coherent state, as the slightest interaction with the external world would cause the system to decohere. That is why the hardware implementation of a quantum computer is still unsolved.
The basic idea of this work is to create a new kind of dynamical system that would preserve the main three properties of quantum physics — superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability — while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. In other words, such a system would reinforce the advantages and minimize limitations of both quantum and classical aspects.
Based upon a concept of hidden statistics, a new kind of dynamical system for simulation of Schrödinger equation is proposed. The system represents a modified Madelung version of Schrödinger equation. It preserves superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such an optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for simulating quantum systems. The model includes a transitional component of quantum potential (that has been overlooked in previous treatment of the Madelung equation). The role of the transitional potential is to provide a jump from a deterministic state to a random state with prescribed probability density. This jump is triggered by blow-up instability due to violation of Lipschitz condition generated by the quantum potential. As a result, the dynamics attains quantum properties on a classical scale. The model can be implemented physically as an analog VLSI-based (very-large-scale integration-based) computer, or numerically on a digital computer.
This work opens a way of developing fundamentally new algorithms for quantum simulations of exponentially complex problems that expand NASA capabilities in conducting space activities. It has been illustrated that the complexity of simulations of particle interaction can be reduced from an exponential one to a polynomial one.