Traditionally, infrared (IR) space instruments have been focused by iterating with a number of different thickness shim rings in a thermal vacuum chamber until the focus meets requirements. This has required a number of thermal cycles that are very expensive as they tie up many integration and test (I&T)/ environmental technicians/engineers working three shifts for weeks. Rather than creating a test shim for each iteration, this innovation replaces the test shim and can focus the instrument while in the thermal vacuum chamber.
The focus tool consists of three small, piezo-actuated motors that drive two sets of mechanical interface flanges between the instrument optics and the focalplane assembly, and three optical-displacement metrology sensors that can be read from outside the thermal vacuum chamber. The motors are used to drive the focal planes to different focal distances and acquire images, from which it is possible to determine the best focus. At the best focus position, the three optical displacement metrology sensors are used to determine the shim thickness needed. After the instrument leaves the thermal vacuum chamber, the focus tool is replaced with the precision-ground shim ring.
The focus tool consists of two sets of collars, one that mounts to the backside of the interface flange of the instrument optics, and one that mounts to the backside of the interface flange of the focal plane modules. The collars on the instrument optics side have the three small piezo-actuated motors and the three optical displacement metrology systems. Before the instrument is focused, there is no shim ring in place and, therefore, no fasteners holding the focal plane modules to the cameras. Two focus tooling collars are held together by three strong springs.
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission spectrometer was focused this way (see figure). The motor described here had to be moved five times to reach an acceptable focus, all during the same thermal cycle, which was verified using pupil slicing techniques. A focus accuracy of ≈20–100 microns was achieved.