Keyword: Optics

Briefs: Physical Sciences

Stereo imaging requires two different perspectives of the same object and, traditionally, a pair of side-by-side cameras would be used but are not feasible for something as tiny as a less than 4-mm-diameter...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Parallel Wavefront Analysis for a 4D Interferometer

This software provides a programming interface for automating data collection with a PhaseCam interferometer from 4D Technology, and distributing the image-processing algorithm across a cluster of general-purpose computers.

Briefs: Electronics & Computers

Compact THz receivers with broad bandwidth and low noise have been developed for the frequency range from 100 GHz to 1 THz. These receivers meet the requirements for high-resolution...

Briefs: Software
Cassini Tour Atlas Automated Generation

During the Cassini spacecraft’s cruise phase and nominal mission, the Cassini Science Planning Team developed and maintained an online database of geometric and timing information called the Cassini Tour Atlas. The Tour Atlas consisted of several hundreds of megabytes of EVENTS mission planning software...

Briefs: Software
Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration

The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science...

Briefs: Manufacturing & Prototyping
Graphite Composite Panel Polishing Fixture

The use of high-strength, lightweight composites for the fixture is the novel feature of this innovation. The main advantage is the light weight and high stiffness-to-mass ratio relative to aluminum.

Briefs: Manufacturing & Prototyping
Ridge Waveguide Structures in Magnesium-Doped Lithium Niobate

This work proposes to establish the feasibility of fabricating isolated ridge waveguides in 5% MgO:LN. Ridge waveguides in MgO:LN will significantly improve power handling and conversion efficiency, increase photonic component integration, and be well suited to space-based...

Briefs: Manufacturing & Prototyping
Material Gradients in Oxygen System Components Improve Safety

Oxygen system components fabricated by Laser Engineered Net Shaping™ (LENS™) could result in improved safety and performance. LENS™ is a near-net shape manufacturing process fusing powdered materials injected into a laser beam. Parts can be fabricated with a variety of elemental...

Briefs: Medical
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurological Disorders by Millimeter-Wave Stimulation

Increasingly, millimeter waves are being employed for telecomm, radar, and imaging applications. To date in the U.S, however, very few investigations on the impact of this radiation on biological systems at the cellular level have been undertaken. In the beginning,...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

Multi-point, multi-axis measurement of position can be valuable in a variety of applications that require high-speed data acquisition and a high degree...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Phase Retrieval for Radio Telescope and Antenna Control

Phase-retrieval is a general term used in optics to describe the estimation of optical imperfections or “aberrations.” The purpose of this innovation is to develop the application of phase retrieval to radio telescope and antenna control in the millimeter wave band.

Articles: Imaging

Machine vision combines a range of technologies to provide useful outputs from the acquisition and analysis of images. Used primarily for inspection and robot guidance, the process...

Articles: Imaging

Acoustic micro imaging uses a moving transducer that pulses ultrasound into materials and receives the return echoes from material interfaces. Images made from the echo signals may show...

Application Briefs: Imaging

For five years, Michael Lunoe, President of Zorg Industries, had been in need of a camera system that could identify objects and provide accurate distance from the rear of a vehicle.

Briefs: Lighting

Polymer nanofibers are nanoscale materials whose properties can be adjusted to provide desirable light management performance for high efficiency solid-state lighting...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
High-Temperature Thermometer Using Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Broadband Luminescence

A new concept has been developed for a high-temperature luminescence-based optical thermometer that both shows the desired temperature sensitivity in the upper temperature range of present state-of-the-art luminescence thermometers (above 1,300 °C), while maintaining...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Metrology Arrangement for Measuring the Positions of Mirrors of a Submillimeter Telescope

The position of the secondary mirror of a submillimeter telescope with respect to the primary mirror needs to be known ≈0.03 mm in three dimensions. At the time of this reporting, no convenient, reasonably priced arrangement that offers this capability...

Briefs: Software
3D Orbit Visualization for Earth-Observing Missions

This software visualizes orbit paths for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), but was designed to be general and applicable to any Earth-observing mission. The software uses the Google Earth user interface to provide a visual mechanism to explore spacecraft orbit paths, ground footprint...

Briefs: Software
MaROS: Web Visualization of Mars Orbiting and Landed Assets

Mars Relay operations currently involve several e-mails and phone calls between lander and orbiter teams in order to settle on an agreed time for performing a communication pass between the landed asset (i.e. rover or lander) and orbiter, then back to Earth. This new application aims to...

Briefs: Software
Image Segmentation, Registration, Compression, and Matching

A novel computational framework was developed of a 2D affine invariant matching exploiting a parameter space. Named as affine invariant parameter space (AIPS), the technique can be applied to many image-processing and computer-vision problems, including image registration, template...

Briefs: Software
Image Calibration

Calibrate_Image calibrates images obtained from focal plane arrays so that the output image more accurately represents the observed scene. The function takes as input a degraded image along with a flat field image and a dark frame image produced by the focal plane array and outputs a corrected image. The three most prominent...

Briefs: Manufacturing & Prototyping
Optimization of Indium Bump Morphology for Improved Flip Chip Devices

Flip-chip hybridization, also known as bump bonding, is a packaging technique for microelectronic devices that directly connects an active element or detector to a substrate readout face-to-face, eliminating the need for wire bonding. In order to make conductive links between...

Briefs: Manufacturing & Prototyping
Pre-Finishing of SiC for Optical Applications

A method is based on two unique processing steps that are both based on deterministic machining processes using a single-point diamond turning (SPDT) machine. In the first step, a high-MRR (material removal rate) process is used to machine the part within several microns of the final geometry. In the...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

Most optical systems require antennas with directive patterns. This means that the physical area of the antenna will be large in terms of the wavelength....

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Local Leak Detection and Health Monitoring of Pressurized Tanks

An optical gas-detection sensor safely monitors pressurized systems (such as cryogenic tanks) and distribution systems for leaks. This sensor system is a fiber-coupled, solid optical body interferometer that allows for the miniaturized sensing element of the device to be placed in...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Fine Guidance Sensing for Coronagraphic Obser vatories

Three options have been developed for Fine Guidance Sensing (FGS) for coronagraphic observatories using a Fine Guidance Camera within a coronagraphic instrument. Coronagraphic observatories require very fine precision pointing in order to image faint objects at very small distances from a...

Briefs: Information Technology
Prioritized LT Codes

The original Luby Transform (LT) coding scheme is extended to account for data transmissions where some information symbols in a message block are more important than others. Prioritized LT codes provide unequal error protection (UEP) of data on an erasure channel by modifying the original LT encoder. The prioritized...

Briefs: Information Technology
Fast Image Texture Classification Using Decision Trees

Texture analysis would permit improved autonomous, onboard science data interpretation for adaptive navigation, sampling, and downlink decisions. These analyses would assist with terrain analysis and instrument placement in both macroscopic and microscopic image data products. Unfortunately,...

Briefs: Information Technology
In-Orbit Instrument-Pointing Calibration Using the Moon as a Target

A method was developed for in-orbit measurement of the relative pointing of spectrometer channels, and the relationship between the spectrometer channels and the spacecraft coordinate system. In this innovation, individual scans of the Moon, from the three channels, were used to...