Keyword: Gases

Briefs: Energy
Solar-Powered Aerobots With Power-Surge Capabilities

Advanced aerobots that would be powered by solar photovoltaic batteries and that would be capable of storing energy for occasional operation during short intervals at power levels far beyond those of the photovoltaic batteries have been proposed. Aerobots are robotic balloon-buoyed airborne...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Combination of Cryotrapping and SPME for GC/MS Analysis

An improved process has been devised for acquiring and preparing trace amounts of airborne organic compounds for analysis by a gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer (GC/MS). A sample of air is passed through a cryotrap, where organic compounds and water vapor condense on the wall of a...

Briefs: Photonics/Optics

NREL scientists have developed an optical processing furnace that combines photonic effects of light with heat to selectively induce reactions at far lower temperatures than they would be if caused by heat alone....

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Briefs: Materials
Two Methods for Purifying Carbon Tetrachloride

Two methods have been developed to purify large batches of technical-grade carbon tetrachloride. The relatively impure carbon tetrachloride that had been purchased for use in infrared analysis of dissolved hydrocarbons proved that it could be purified. One method is spinning-band distillation, which...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

The figure schematically illustrates an improved apparatus for generating a flow of gas with precise, stable humidity. Such flows are needed for calibration of dew-point, frost-point, and...

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Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems

The figure presents a simplified view of a shaft seal that provides a small flow of neutral buffer gas to prevent contact between different gases contained in two adjacent regions along the shaft. In the original application,...

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Briefs: Physical Sciences

A method that includes the use of modified equations of state has been developed to enable noniterative, efficient computation of the thermodynamic behaviors of gases and liquids at...

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Briefs: Physical Sciences
Evaluation of Droplet-Evaporation Models for Gas/Liquid Flow

A report presents an evaluation of eight mathematical models of the evaporation of liquid droplets — models that are used in the numerical simulation of a variety of gas/liquid flows, including cooling sprays, burning liquid-fuel sprays, fire-suppression sprays, and...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

A mathematical model of a special class of solid/fluid chemical reactions has been developed for use in analyzing the pyrolysis of particles of cellulose, wood, and similar biomass...

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Briefs: Physical Sciences

Kinetic rate data are needed to design all chemical processes. Specifically, they are needed to determine such things as ignition delay times, combustion times, and explosion...

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Briefs: Sensors/Data Acquisition
Proximity Measurement of Pressure and Temperature

Inexpensive, high-performance, optically coupled temperature and strain gauges based on a combination of advanced optoelectronic and microelectromechanical concepts have been proposed. The sensors would contain vibrating beams with submillimeter dimensions, made primarily of silicon by...