Keyword: Erosion

Application Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems
Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH
www.wpafb.af.mil/afrl

Mars rovers are sophisticated, multi-instrumented pieces of equipment that travel...

Briefs: Propulsion
Propellant Distributor for a Thruster

Innovators at NASA's Glenn Research Center have developed several new technological innovations to improve the capability of Hall-effect thrusters, which are used primarily on Earth-orbiting satellites and can also be used for deep-space robotic vehicles. Hall thrusters are susceptible to discharge channel...

Briefs: Medical
Methods and Systems for Non-Invasive Treatment of Tissue Using High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy

Minimally invasive and non-invasive therapeutic ultrasound treatments can be used to ablate, necrotize, and/or otherwise damage tissue. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), for example, is used to thermally or mechanically damage tissue....

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems

A valve cage consists of a stackable planar structure design with paths that are azimuthally cut out and connected radially. The pattern causes the flow to move...

Briefs: Test & Measurement
Nozzle Heat Flux Gauge

This innovation is a tungsten-rhenium gauge that can be placed into an aft exit cone of a rocket motor. It will measure heat flux with time for the full duration of the RSRM (reusable solid rocket motor) nozzle environment with equal response time.

Briefs: Manufacturing & Prototyping
Plasma Reduction of Lunar Regolith for In-Space Fabrication

The in situ production of vital gases and raw materials on the lunar surface is an integral part of NASA’s exploration vision. Development of processes for extraction of oxygen and metallics from the lunar regolith will be vital not only for life support on the lunar surface, but also...

Briefs: Information Technology
Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

Abrasion of mechanical components and fabrics by soil on Earth is typically minimized by the effects of atmosphere and water. Potentially abrasive particles lose sharp and pointed geometrical features through erosion. In environments where such erosion does not...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Radio Frequency Plasma Discharge Lamps for Use as Stable Calibration Light Sources

Stable high radiance in visible and near-ultraviolet wavelengths is desirable for radiometric calibration sources. In this work, newly available electrodeless radio-frequency (RF) driven plasma light sources were combined with research-grade, low-noise power...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Co-Flow Hollow Cathode Technology

Hall thrusters utilize identical hollow cathode technology as ion thrusters, yet must operate at much higher mass flow rates in order to efficiently couple to the bulk plasma discharge. Higher flow rates are necessary in order to provide enough neutral collisions to transport electrons across magnetic fields so...

Articles: Photonics/Optics

Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and their applications are experiencing rapid growth, especially in the area of remote sensing. Advances in propulsion; airframe materials;...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor

This innovation enables a means for actively measuring atomic oxygen fluence (accumulated atoms of atomic oxygen per area) that has impinged upon spacecraft surfaces. Telemetered data from the device provides spacecraft designers, researchers, and mission managers with real-time measurement of atomic oxygen fluence,...

Briefs: Software
Hybrid-PIC Computer Simulation of the Plasma and Erosion Processes in Hall Thrusters

HPHall software simulates and tracks the time-dependent evolution of the plasma and erosion processes in the discharge chamber and near-field plume of Hall thrusters. HPHall is an axisymmetric solver that employs a hybrid fluid/ particle-in-cell (Hybrid-PIC)...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems

This elemental space radiator heat pipe is designed to operate in the 700 to 875 K temperature range. It consists of a C–C (carbon-carbon) shell made from poly-acrylonitride...

Briefs: Materials
Probabilistic Multi-Factor Interaction Model for Complex Material Behavior

Complex material behavior is represented by a single equation of product form to account for interaction among the various factors. The factors are selected by the physics of the problem and the environment that the model is to represent. For example, different factors...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems
Steel Primer Chamber Assemblies for Dual Initiated Pyrovalves

A solution was developed to mitigate the potential risk of ignition failures and burn-through in aluminum primer chamber assemblies on pyrovalves. This was accomplished by changing the assembly material from aluminum to steel, and reconfiguration of flame channels to provide more...

Briefs: Electronics & Computers

Nano- multiplication- region avalanche photodiodes (NAPDs), and imaging arrays of NAPDs integrated with complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel-sensor integrated...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems
Increasing the Life of a Xenon-Ion Spacecraft Thruster

A short document summarizes the redesign of a xenon-ion spacecraft thruster to increase its operational lifetime beyond a limit heretofore imposed by nonuniform ion-impact erosion of an accelerator electrode grid. A peak in the ion current density on the centerline of the thruster causes...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

A device that includes a rectangular-waveguide / slot-antenna structure and permanent magnets has been devised as a means of generating a substantially uniform plasma over a...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Large-Area Permanent-Magnet ECR Plasma Source

A 40-cm-diameter plasma device has been developed as a source of ions for material-processing and ion-thruster applications. Like the device described in the immediately preceding article, this device utilizes electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) excited by microwave power in a magnetic field to...

Briefs: Manufacturing & Prototyping
An improved method has been devised for using directed, hyperthermal beams of oxygen atoms and ions to impart desired textures to the tips of polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA] optical...
Briefs: Materials

A relatively economical method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been developed for synthesizing diamond crystals and films. Unlike prior CVD methods for synthesizing diamond, this method does...

Briefs: Materials

An explicit material model that uses predicted pressure in the pores of a carbon-cloth phenolic (CCP) composite has been developed. This model is intended to be used within a...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

The imposition of a magnetic field has been proposed as a means of reducing the electron backstreaming problem in ion thrusters.

Electron backstreaming refers to the...

Briefs: Electronics & Computers

Eroding potentiometers have been devised for measuring the time-dependent positions of char fronts advancing through layers of insulating material subject to intense heating from one side. In the original application,...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

A project is underway in the Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL) at Dryden Flight Research Center to reduce the uncertainties in heat-flux measurements. The impetus for this project is...

Briefs: Materials
Fluorinated Diamondlike Carbon Coatings

Some experiments directed toward the development of improved hard, lubricious coating materials have involved direct fluorination of proprietary diamondlike coats on various substrates. The idea is to retain the hardness of the diamondlike material while adding surface molecular structures that impart the...

Briefs: Materials
Making Ion-Accelerator Grids From Ti Instead of Mo

Titanium has been found to offer several advantages over molybdenum as the material used to construct electrostatic-accelerator and -screen grids for ion thrusters for spacecraft. These advantages could also be expected to extend to the manufacture of grids for ion accelerators used in...

Briefs: Materials
Improved Coatings for Flexible Insulating Blankets

"ACE" (for "advanced ceramic engineered") denotes a type of coating mate-rial that increases the ability of flexible thermal-insulation blankets to resist erosion. Developed for use on the insulating blankets on the space shuttle orbiters, these coating materials could also be used on similar...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

A computer-controlled instrumentation system has been developed for use in measuring concentrations of various atomic species in the exhaust gases of a space-shuttle main engine on a...

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