Keyword: Water

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Buoy Instrumented for Spectral Measurement of Water Quality

An instrumented buoy measures selected aspects of the spectrum of upwelling light for assessment of "water quality." The buoy carries a previously patented optical-backscatter probe that contains a hyperspectral sensor. The output of the probe is processed by a small onboard computer....

Briefs: Physical Sciences

A new concept called "liquid shell insulation" has been proposed as a means of temporary thermal protection for scientific instrument probes that are required to operate for short times in hot, high-pressure...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

An instrument that measures the characteristic lifetime of fluorescence of chlorophyll has been invented for in situ, real-time oceanographic studies of photosynthesis in...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems

A Rankine-cycle engine that contains a binary working fluid (ammonia + water) and a recuperative heat exchanger has been built and tested. This engine is a prototype of...

Briefs: Medical

Figure 1 schematically illustrates a laboratory apparatus that provides quantitative information on the density and on the rate of increase (or decrease) of density at which bacteria...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Designing Purging Flows of Clean, Dry Gases

A method of designing purging flows of clean, dry gases to maintain acceptably low levels of contamination in enclosed volumes has been developed. The method is applicable to diverse enclosures that must be kept clean, including housings of precise optical instruments, clinical facilities, facilities...

Briefs: Test & Measurement

An optoelectronic instrument, known as a plant fluorescence sensor, is being developed for use as a working tool in agricultural settings. This instrument is a remote, passive...

Briefs: Photonics/Optics

A simplified microwave radiometric apparatus has been proposed for use in quantifying the potential danger of accretion of ice onto an aircraft flying through a cloud. The quantity...

Briefs: Materials
Priming Ceramic Materials for Better Waterproofing

An improved process for waterproofing ceramic materials — especially lightweight ceramic insulation materials in both rigid (tile) and flexible (blanket) form — has been invented. In this process, traditional waterproofing agents are used, but before the waterproofing agents are applied, the...

Briefs: Materials
Molecular-Sieve Type 3Å

The term "Molecular-Sieve Type 3Å" denotes a clay-based, zeolite material that revolutionizes a fluid-purification process by removing trace water and iron from nitrogen tetroxide/nitric oxide (MON-3) mixtures used as oxidizer components of spacecraft propellants. Older processes of this type removed only water or iron...

Briefs: Materials

Improved polymer electrolyte membranes for direct methanol fuel cells can be made by impregnating the baseline membrane material with cross-linked polystyrene (a copolymer of styrene...

Briefs: Motion Control

An improved magnetostrictively actuated pump has been developed to satisfy a need for a small, low-pressure, high-flow-rate fluid pump that contains few moving parts and can run reliably for long periods...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Continuous Electrolytic Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide

Electrolytic cells for the continuous generation of hydrogen peroxide in streams of water have been developed. Cells of this type could be incorporated into wastewater-treatment systems based on advanced oxidation processes that utilize hydroxyl radicals. In addition to...

Briefs: Materials

Electrodialysis has been shown to be an effective means for removing ammonium ions from wastewater without use of consumable chemicals and without adding other substances to the treated...

Briefs: Materials
Separating Ethanol From Water Via Differential Miscibility

The differential miscibility of castor oil in ethanol and water would be exploited to separate ethanol from water, according to a proposal. Burning the separated ethanol would produce more energy than would be consumed in the separation process. In contrast, the separation of a small...

Briefs: Medical

A material developed for space suits has been found useful in a completely different application: making wicks to support seedlings and to carry water and nutrients to them during the initial stages of...

Briefs: Materials
Separating Ethanol From Water Via Differential Solubility

The differential solubility of sulfur in ethanol and water could be exploited to separate ethanol from water. The energy that could be produced by burning the separated ethanol would be more than that required in the separation process. In contrast, the separation of a small amount of...

Briefs: Sensors/Data Acquisition

A robust sensor based on the electrochemical oxidation of methanol has been developed for use in measuring the concentration of methanol dissolved in water. The sensor is expected to...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

Programmable multizone furnaces with enhanced designs have been proposed for use in processing materials by directional solidification or, optionally, by related techniques of...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

A special-purpose fiber-optic illumination device can be attached temporarily to a window to help an inspector examine window surfaces for scratches, pits, small-scale roughness, and dirt....

Briefs: Photonics/Optics

Single crystals of benzil, benzil aniline, and salicylidene-aniline have been successfully grown using a modified...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Methanol-Fuel-Cell Biplate Improved for Removal of Water

An improved design for a biplate in a methanol fuel cell provides increased efficiency in the removal of water, relative to older designs. For reasons explained below, this design both improves the performance of the fuel cell and increases the overall energy efficiency of the...

Briefs: Photonics/Optics

A vapor drying treatment removes traces of water and other contaminant residues that remain on the surface of a patterned semiconductor substrate after chemical cleaning in...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

Quasi-thermostatic gas-gap thermal switches have been proposed. These switches would operate automatically, would contain no moving parts, would not require power supplies or controls, would...

Briefs: Motion Control

Mobile robots that would resemble earthworms have been proposed for use in exploring remote, hostile, or inaccessible terrain surface and subsurface environments. This class of robots would be a special case...

Briefs: Robotics, Automation & Control

An improved hybrid thermal/mechanical system has been developed to protect airplane wings and other airfoils against the accretion of ice, which degrades aerodynamic performance. The...

Briefs: Materials

A foam suppressor removes soap and other foaming agents from a stream of wastewater that is being treated electrolytically. This wastewater is a combination of laundry, hygiene, and urine wastewater. It is...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Combination of Cryotrapping and SPME for GC/MS Analysis

An improved process has been devised for acquiring and preparing trace amounts of airborne organic compounds for analysis by a gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer (GC/MS). A sample of air is passed through a cryotrap, where organic compounds and water vapor condense on the wall of a...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

A sonochemical treatment has been proposed for removing hydrazine contaminants from water. The basis of the proposal is a conjecture that the sonochemical effect in water containing...