Keyword: Particulate matter (PM)

Briefs: Medical
Adaptation of a Filter Assembly to Assess Microbial Bioburden of Pressurant Within a Propulsion System

A report describes an adaptation of a filter assembly to enable it to be used to filter out microorganisms from a propulsion system. The filter assembly has previously been used for particulates >2 μm. Projects that utilize large volumes of...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Self-Sealing Wet Chemistry Cell for Field Analysis

In most analytical investigations, there is a need to process complex field samples for the unique detection of analytes, especially when detecting low-concentration organic molecules that may identify extraterrestrial life. Wet chemistry based instruments are the techniques of choice for most...

Briefs: Software

NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a near- Earth object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely....

Articles: Nanotechnology

Disinfecting can be dirty work. Typical cleaning agents, like chlorine and alcohol, release fumes that don’t go away when applied in the contained environment of a spacecraft. So NASA scientists developed an...

Application Briefs: Materials

Plastic-molded components produced by Diversified Plastics are currently speeding through space towards Jupiter aboard NASA’s Juno Space Probe. The craft was launched August 5, 2011, and...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Instrument Suite for Vertical Characterization of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System

A document describes a suite that provides four simultaneous ion and neutral-atom measurements as a function of altitude, with variable sensitivity for neutral atmospheric species. The variable sensitivity makes it possible to extend the measurements over the...

Briefs: Manufacturing & Prototyping

Projects that utilize large volumes of nonmetallic materials of planetary protection concern pose a challenge to their bioburden budget, as the most...

Briefs: Medical
Purifying, Separating, and Concentrating Cells From a Sample Low in Biomass

Frequently there is an inability to process and analyze samples of low biomass due to limiting amounts of relevant biomaterial in the sample. Furthermore, molecular biological protocols geared towards increasing the density of recovered cells and biomolecules of...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Method to Remove Particulate Matter From Dusty Gases at Low Pressures

Future human exploration of Mars will rely on local Martian resources to reduce the mass, cost, and risk of space exploration launched from Earth. NASA’s In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Project seeks to produce mission consumables from local Martian resources, such as...

Briefs: Lighting

A team of nanomaterials researchers at Sandia National Laboratories has developed a new technique that could make radiation detection in cargo and baggage more effective and less costly...

Briefs: Lighting

The gallium nitride nanowires grown by PML scientists may only be a few tenths of a micrometer in diameter, but they promise a very wide range of applications, from new light-emitting diodes and diode lasers...

Briefs: Materials

Building on previous knowledge acquired through research on thin-film batteries, three-dimensional (3D) porous macroscopic...

Briefs: Medical
Hardy Bacterium Isolated From Two Geographically Distinct Spacecraft Assembly Cleanroom Facilities

Earlier studies have confirmed that a tenacious hardy bacterial population manages to persist and survive throughout a spacecraft assembly process. The widespread detection of these organisms underscores the challenges in eliminating them...

Briefs: Medical

A nanovector multistage system has been created to overcome or bypass sequential barriers within the human body, in order to deliver a therapeutic or...

Briefs: Lighting

Nanowires — microscopic fibers that can be “grown” in a lab — have a variety of potential applications, including LEDs and sensors. A team of MIT researchers...

Briefs: Materials
Materials That Enhance Efficiency and Radiation Resistance of Solar Cells

A thin layer (≈10 microns) of a novel “transparent” fluorescent material is applied to existing solar cells or modules to effectively block and convert UV light, or other lower solar response waveband of solar radiation, to visible or IR light that can be more...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Supercritical CO₂ Cleaning System for Planetary Protection and Contamination Control Applications

Current spacecraft-compatible cleaning protocols involve a vapor degreaser, liquid sonication, and alcohol wiping. These methods are not very effective in removing live and dead microbes from spacecraft piece parts of slightly complicated...

Briefs: Materials
Sealing Materials for Use in Vacuum at High Temperatures

Sealing materials that can be applied and left in place in vacuum over a wide range of temperatures (especially temperatures of a few thousand degrees Celsius) have been conceived and investigated for potential utility in repairing thermal-protection tiles on the space shuttles in orbit...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Multi-Component, Multi-Point Interferometric Rayleigh/Mie Doppler Velocimeter

An interferometric Rayleigh scattering system was developed to enable the measurement of multiple, orthogonal velocity components at several points within very-high-speed or high-temperature flows. The velocity of a gaseous flow can be optically measured by sending...

Briefs: Materials
Use of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Covalent Attachment of Nanotubes to Silicon

The purpose of the invention is to covalently attach functionalized carbon nanotubes to silicon. This step allows for the introduction of carbon nanotubes onto all manner of silicon surfaces, and thereby introduction of carbon nanotubes covalently into...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

This sensor unit is designed to determine the level of activation of lunar dust or simulant particles using a fluorescent technique. Activation of the surface of a lunar soil...

Application Briefs: Robotics, Automation & Control

NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory Rover “Curiosity” is the biggest rover to roam the Red Planet, measuring almost the size of a standard car. The rover is expected to land...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Energy-Based Tetrahedron Sensor for High-Temperature, High-Pressure Environments

An acoustic energy-based probe has been developed that incorporates multiple acoustic sensing elements in order to obtain the acoustic pressure and threedimensional acoustic particle velocity. With these quantities, the user can obtain various energy-based...

Briefs: Software
Debris Examination Using Ballistic and Radar Integrated Software

The Debris Examination Using Ballistic and Radar Integrated Software (DEBRIS) program was developed to provide rapid and accurate analysis of debris observed by the NASA Debris Radar (NDR). This software provides a greatly improved analysis capacity over earlier manual processes,...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Electrospray Collection of Lunar Dust

A report describes ElectroSpray Ionization based Electrostatic Precipitation (ESIEP) for collecting lunar dust particles. While some HEPA filtration processes may remove a higher fraction (>99.9 percent) of the particles, the high efficiency may not be appropriate from an overall system standpoint,...

Briefs: Electronics & Computers
Composite Thermal Switch

Lithium primary and lithium ion secondary batteries provide high specific energy and energy density. The use of these batteries also helps to reduce launch weight. Both primary and secondary cells can be packaged as highrate cells, which can present a threat to crew and equipment in the event of external or internal...

Articles: Photonics/Optics
NASA Looks to Make Tractor Beams a Reality

Tractor beams — the ability to trap and move objects using laser light — are not just “Star Trek” science fiction, and are not beyond current technology. A team of NASA scientists has won funding to study the concept of remotely capturing planetary or atmospheric particles, and delivering them...

Briefs: Lighting

A new mobile lighting system features a fuel cell running on pure hydrogen, resulting in zero-emission electrical power. The fuel cell produces electricity for an advanced, power-saving...

Briefs: Lighting
High-Performance LED Comprised of Organic and Quantum Dot-Based Layers

New research paves the way to manufacturing efficient, stable, and low-cost quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which is important for the widespread commercial use of these LEDs in large-area, full-color flat-panel displays or as solid-state lighting sources to...