Keyword: Particulate matter (PM)

Briefs: Information Technology
Characteristics of Dynamics of Intelligent Systems

An investigation of nonlinear mathematical models of dynamics has led to the selection of characteristics that could be useful for distinguishing mathematically between the behaviors of (1) intelligent or living systems and (2) nonliving systems. As contemplated here, an intelligent or living...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

A proposed simple, portable, robust apparatus, capable of automated operation, has been proposed for collecting samples of selected biological or chemical species in harsh...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Radiometer for Measuring Cirrus-Cloud Ice and Water Vapor

An airborne submillimeter-wavelength radiometer, expected to be built and tested in the near future, is designed primarily to yield measurement data that can be processed to quantify the ice contents and mean sizes (and, to some extent, the shapes) of ice crystals in cirrus clouds that...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems
Synchronizing Attitudes and Maneuvers of Multiple Spacecraft

A report discusses the problem of controlling the maneuvers of multiple spacecraft flying in formation and, more specifically, making the entire formation rotate about a given axis and synchronizing the rotations of the individual spacecraft with the rotation of the formation. Such...

Briefs: Medical

Several groups of methods of enhanced bioproduction and extraction of taxanes have been invented. Taxanes (see figure) have exhibited potential as drugs for treatment of cancer and congenital...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

Optical Fourier-plane analysis may prove useful for obtaining statistical data on the densities, sizes, shapes, indices of refraction, and perhaps other properties of particles...

Briefs: Electronics & Computers

Several improvements in the designs of flip-flop circuits that are parts of logic circuits have been proposed to reduce the incidence of logic errors associated with single- event upsets (SEUs) [bit flips caused by...

Briefs: Materials

Particles of dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide) entrained in gas flows would be used during machining to cool cutting tools and workpieces, according to a proposal. Solid carbon dioxide particles...

Briefs: Medical

A technique for detecting bacterial endospores via luminescence affords a sensitivity much greater than that of a prior luminescence-based technique from which it is derived. The...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

An instrumentation system measures the concentrations of three principal contaminants (nonvolatile residue, hydrocarbon vapor, and particle fallout) in real time. The system...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems
Improvements in the Use of Water Washes in Testing for NVR

Some improvements have been made to enhance the role of water as a test solvent for determining the amount of hydrocarbon nonvolatile residue (NVR) present on an item of hardware that is required to be totally or nearly devoid of such residue. Water is now used as an NVR-testing solvent...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

Miniature, lightweight nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectrometers suitable for characterizing ferromagnetic minerals in the field are undergoing development. In previously developed miniature...

Briefs: Photonics/Optics

The figure depicts the basic optical layouts for (1) conventional laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and (2) a newer method of LDV based partly on the use of two optical fibers. Whereas...

Briefs: Medical

In an advanced method of administering drugs to target sites in human bodies, the drugs in liquid form are contained in microcapsules that are injected, and then, by exposing the...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

A mathematical model has been developed for use in analyzing the dynamics of an isothermal, non-chemically-reacting mixture of particles in a bubbling fluidized bed. Although the...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems
Improvements in a Piezoelectrically Actuated Microvalve

A report discusses the continuing development of a normally closed, piezoelectrically actuated valve fabricated mostly by micromachining of silicon. The design and operation of the microvalve as described in the instant report are basically the same as those of the version described in...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Study of Inertial and Gravitational Masses of a Boson

A report presents a theoretical study of the relationship between the inertial mass (mi) and gravitational mass (mg) of a self-interacting neutral scalar boson in a heat bath. The question of whether these masses differ arises in modern physics. In quantum field theory, the mass of a particle...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Multiphase-Flow Model of Fluidized-Bed Pyrolysis of Biomass

A report presents additional information about the subject matter of “Model of Pyrolysis of Biomass in a Fluidized- Bed Reactor” (NPO-20708) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 6 (June 2001), page 59. The model is built on equations for the dynamics of three components — gas, sand, and...

Briefs: Materials

The term “prefield test” denotes an in situ test of contaminated soil in preparation for in situ treatment of the soil by a method called “electrokinetically enhanced...

Briefs: Information Technology
Quantum Superluminal Transmission of Random Messages

In a proposed communication scheme, quantum entanglement and quantum nonlocality would be utilized to effect instantaneous transmission of randomly chosen messages to remote locations. Although the messages would not convey any information, they might nevertheless be of some value under...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems

Efforts are underway to implement an improved design of the device described in "Normally Closed, Piezoelectrically Actuated Microvalve" (NPO-20782), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January...

Briefs: Medical

An x-ray photogrammetric technique for minimally invasive measurement of displacements in muscles, limbs, and organs is undergoing development. This technique could be alternative or...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Hand-Held Optoelectronic Particulate Monitors

Optoelectronic instruments are being developed for use in measuring the concentrations and sizes of microscopic particles suspended in air. The instruments could be used, for example, to detect smoke, explosive dust in grain elevators, or toxic dusts in industrial buildings. Like some older,...

Briefs: Electronics & Computers
Network for Forecasting Weather and Diffusion of Toxins

The Meteorological Range Safety Support System/Eastern Range Dispersion Assessment System (MARSS/ERDAS) is a system of interconnected computer workstations designed to acquire, process, and disseminate nearly real-time meteorological data and outputs of mathematical models of the...

Briefs: Motion Control

Miniature electroactive-polymer rakes (MEARs) are undergoing development for eventual use as simple, lightweight, inexpensive low-power-consumption devices that would remove soil, dust, and/or other...

Briefs: Medical

Electrokinetically enhanced bioremediation (EEB) is a method of engineered bioremediation of soil contaminated by such organic compounds as solvents and petroleum products. As depicted...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Model of Pyrolysis of Biomass in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor

A mathematical model has been formulated to describe the pyrolysis of biomass in a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor. The reactor is a vertical cylinder that contains a mixture of biomass particles and sand. Superheated steam enters the reactor through holes in the bottom and flows out freely...

Briefs: Physical Sciences

A portable apparatus that operates at atmospheric pressure generates a beam of monatomic oxygen. The apparatus is designed to be used in a dry, noncontact process for removing...

Briefs: Materials
Improved Polymeric Composite Materials for Dental Fillings

Composite materials that include combinations of metal oxide and silica nanoparticles in polymeric matrices have been invented for primary use as dental fillings, dental and bone adhesives, and the like. There have been previous efforts to develop polymeric replacements for the amalgam...