A Hybrid Fiber/Solid-State Regenerative Amplifier with Tunable Pulse Widths for Satellite Laser Ranging

A fiber/solid-state hybrid seeded regenerative amplifier, capable of achieving high output energy with tunable pulse widths, has been developed for satellite laser ranging applications. The regenerative amplifier cavity uses a pair of Nd:YAG zigzag slabs oriented orthogonally to one another in order to make thermal lensing effects symmetrical and simplify optical correction schemes. The seed laser used is a fibercoupled 1,064-nm narrowband (<0.02 nm) diode laser that is discretely driven in a new short-pulsed mode, enabling continuously tunable seed pulse widths in the 0.2-to-0.4-ns range.

The amplifier gain unit consists of a pair of Brewster-cut 6-bounce zigzag Nd:YAG laser slabs, oriented 90° relative to each other in the amplifier head. This arrangement creates a net-symmetrical thermal lens effect (an opposing singleaxis effect in each slab), and makes thermo- optical corrections simple by optimizing the curvature of the nearest cavity mirror. Each slab is pumped by a single 120-W, pulsed 808-nm laser diode array. In this configuration, the average pump beam distribution in the slabs had a 1-D Gaussian shape, which matches the estimated cavity mode size. A half-wave plate between the slabs reduces losses from Fresnel reflections due to the orthogonal slabs’ Brewster-cut end faces. Successful “temporal” seeding of the regenerative amplifier cavity results in a cavity Q-switch pulse envelope segmenting into shorter pulses, each having the width of the input seed, and having a uniform temporal separation corresponding to the cavity round-trip time of ≈10 ns. The pulse energy is allowed to build on successive passes in the regenerative amplifier cavity until a maximum is reached, (when cavity gains and losses are equal), after which the pulse is electro- optically switched out on the next round trip.

The overall gain of the amplifier is ≈82 dB (or a factor of 1.26 million). After directing the amplified output through a LBO frequency doubling crystal, ≈2.1 W of 532-nm output (>1 mJ) was measured. This corresponds to a nonlinear conversion efficiency of >60%. Furthermore, by pulse pumping this system, a single pulse per laser shot can be created for the SLR (satellite laser ranging) measurement, and this can be ejected into the instrument. This is operated at the precise frequency needed by the measurement, as opposed to commercial short-pulsed, modelocked systems that need to operate in a continuous fashion, or CW (continuous wave), and create pulses at many MHz. Therefore, this design does not need to “throw away” or dump 99% of the laser energy to produce what is required; this system can be far smaller, more efficient, cheaper, and readily deployed in the field when packaged efficiently.

Finally, by producing custom diode seed pulses electronically, two major advantages over commercial systems are realized: First, this pulse shape is customizable and not affected by the cavity length or gain of the amplifier cavity, and second, it can produce adjustable (selectable) pulse widths by simply adding multiple seed diodes and coupling each into commercial, low-cost fiber-optic combiners.

This work was done by Barry Coyle of Goddard Space Flight Center and Demetrios Poulios of American University. GSC-16550-1

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