White Papers

The Stealth E-Bike: Challenges in Developing the First Fully Integrated Drive System for E-Bikes

The idea of a bike with pedal assistance is very old, dating back to 1860, when pedal assistance was thought of as a steam machine that would give power to the back wheel of a bike. In 1895, the first direct-drive hub motor was developed, which, as a concept, still remains today. In 1897, the first idea for a mid-drive system was born, but wasn’t quite a finished idea. In 1898, the idea was developed of a direct-drive motor that is concentric with a shaft that powers a rotor atop the rear tire to make a friction drive. As decades went on, other concepts for e-bikes were developed, using drive systems only in the front wheel or the back wheel. FAZUA is launching the future of e-bikes in 2015 with what the company calls the mid-drive 2.0. It’s a mid-drive system with an integrated gear reduction that is smaller, lighter, and integrated in the bike so the e-bike actually still looks and feels like a bike – because it actually still is a bike.

Posted in: Medical, White Papers

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Internet of Things

Not too long ago, the idea of bringing intelligence to physical objects in our world and interconnecting them might have seemed like science fiction. Yet it is happening right now, as the phenomenon we call the Internet of Things (IoT) takes shape.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, White Papers

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The Self-Driving Car

Since the first demonstration of a radio-controlled car in 1925, the automotive industry has been seeking to build a reliable driverless vehicle. The safety of robot-quick reflexes and predictive algorithms, combined with the convenience of effortless travel, is appealing. For those who cannot physically drive, an autonomous car allows a new level of freedom. Of the 5.5 million car crashes per year in the United States, 93 per- cent of them have a human cause as the primary factor.1 A self-driving car could reduce such accidents and, as a bonus, use its predictive driving to reduce fuel consumption and traffic congestion.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, White Papers

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Virtual Prototyping: Visualizing the Next Generation of Products

The Department of Defense defines a virtual prototype as “A computer-based simulation of a system or subsystem with a degree of functional realism comparable to a physical prototype.” A virtual prototype is built from CAD drawings of separate assemblies that are gradually placed into the whole. Since the drawings of each subassembly are detailed and accurate, you can accurately assess their form (overall shape), fit (ease of as- sembly), and function (making sure it performs as specified). In addition to these traditional three Fs, the virtual prototype can be used for motion studies and studying interactions be- tween the machine and the humans who will use it. Once the design is complete, you can use the digital model to see whether parts interfere as you move them through their com- plete range of motion. In the past, design and analysis have been separate tasks, performed by different teams. With virtual prototyping, these functions are completely entwined.

Posted in: Manufacturing & Prototyping, White Papers

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Analog Signal Conditioning for Accurate Measurements

By Jon Titus Q: Should I put some sort of circuit between my sensor and an analog-to-digital converter? A:Yes. You probably need some signal conditioning. The explanation below goes on for a bit, but stay with it and you'll understand what you need and why you need it. Before you make any connections, get the electrical specifications for the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and for the sensor or sensors in your system. Let's assume the data-acquisition module uses a Maxim Integrated Products MAX197 12-bit ADC. This device can accept eight differential (2-wire) inputs or 16 single-ended (1-wire) inputs. Maxim's specifications show an input impedance of 21 kohms for single-ended inputs and 16 kohms for differential inputs.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

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3D Printing and the Future of Manufacturing

3D printing is transforming the manufacturing industry in big ways. From realized design freedom to supply chain efficiencies, 3D printing is contributing largely to the recent upswing in reshoring manufacturing in North America. Read the latest white paper from Stratasys Service Bureaus to learn how 3D printing will continue to transform the industry in the coming years.

Posted in: Manufacturing & Prototyping, White Papers

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9 questions to ask when specifying a slewing ring bearing

In applications where a bearing must support a rotating structure (e.g. cranes, radar, tank turrets), premature failure can put people and equipment at risk. Designers choosing a slewing ring bearing for such applications should consider many factors, such as the bearing’s support structure, mounting (including bolt strength, tensioning and hole patterns), installation, and even storage. A new white paper from Kaydon Bearings, an SKF Group company, details nine key questions to ask when specifying a slewing ring bearing.

Posted in: Mechanical Components, White Papers

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