This technology can be used in aerospace, semiconductors, antireflection coatings, optoelectronics, and communications.
Optical absorber coatings have been developed from carbon-based paints, metal blacks, or glassy carbon. However, such materials are not truly black and have poor absorption characteristics at longer wavelengths. The blackness of such coatings is important to increase the accuracy of calibration targets used in radiometric imaging spectrometers since blackbody cavities are prohibitively large in size. Such coatings are also useful potentially for thermal detectors, where a broadband absorber is desired. Au-black has been a commonly used broadband optical absorber, but it is very fragile and can easily be damaged by heat and mechanical vibration. An optically efficient, thermally rugged absorber could also be beneficial for thermal solar cell applications for energy harnessing, particularly in the 350–2,500 nm spectral window.
It has been demonstrated that arrays of vertically oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs), specifically multi-walled-carbon- nanotubes (MWCNTs), are an exceptional optical absorber over a broad range of wavelengths well into the infrared (IR). The reflectance of such arrays is 100× lower compared to conventional black materials, such as Au black in the spectral window of 350–2,500 nm. Total hemispherical measurements revealed a reflectance of ≈1.7 % at λ ≈1 μm, and at longer wavelengths into the infrared (IR), the specular reflectance was ≈2.4 % at λ ≈7 μm.
The previously synthesized CNTs for optical absorber applications were formed using water-assisted thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which yields CNT lengths in excess of 100’s of microns. Vertical alignment, deemed to be a critical feature in enabling the high optical absorption from CNT arrays, occurs primarily via the crowding effect with thermal CVD synthesized CNTs, which is generally not effective in aligning CNTs with lengths < 10 μm. Here it has been shown that the electric field inherent in a plasma yields vertically aligned CNTs at small length scales (<10 μm), which still exhibit broadband, and high-efficiency optical absorption characteristics from the ultraviolet (UV) to IR. A thin and yet highly absorbing coating is extremely valuable for detector applications for radiometry in order to enhance sensitivity. A plasmabased process also increases the potential of forming the optical absorbers at lower synthesis temperatures in the future, increasing the prospects of integrating the absorbers with flexible substrates for low-cost solar cell applications, for example.
This work was done by Anupama B. Kaul and James B. Coles of Caltech for NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
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