Topics

Health, Medicine, & Biotechnology

Briefs : Medical
Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for...

Briefs : Medical
Robotic Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering and Organ Growth

The aim of tissue engineering (TE) is to restore tissue and organ functions with minimal host rejection. TE is seen as a future solution to solve the crisis of donor organs for transplant, which faces a shortage expected only to increase in the future. In this innovation, a flexible and...

Articles : Medical
Meet Our Readers: Michael Hudspeth, CAD Designer, Medical Devices

In a new series, the editors of NASA Tech Briefs magazine catch up with everyday engineers about their unique responsibilities and challenges. This week, we highlight fellow reader and CAD designer of medical devices, Michael Hudspeth.

Briefs : Medical
Brain Sensing Technology Provides Real-Time Diagnosis

Every 21 seconds, someone suffers a serious brain injury, including stroke, trauma, or concussion. Until now, there has been no way to quickly and reliably diagnose these calamities.

Briefs : Medical
Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for...

Briefs : Medical
Quantifying Risk in Various Methods of Continuous Monitoring

Worldwide, there is growing concern about how to protect public safety and increase cooperation among regulatory agencies to audit medical device companies and their suppliers. Regulatory agencies are increasingly looking to global organizations such as the Global Health Task Force...

Briefs : Manufacturing & Prototyping
Technology Eliminates the Need for Pre-Wetting Cartridge Filters

There has been a long-term need in the filtration industry — particularly for a variety of life science applications — to eliminate the need for pre-wetting cartridge filters with alcohol before sending them to customers. It is not only an expensive, time-consuming process, but...

Briefs : Materials
High-Performance Micro-Porous Fluoropolymer Plastics for Critical Applications

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a fully fluorinated polymer with exceptional chemical and physical properties: excellent chemical resistance, high temperature stability, good dielectric and nonstick properties and exceptional resistance to degeneration under severe...

Briefs : Medical
Enabling Disabled Persons To Gain Access to Digital Media

A report describes the first phase in an effort to enhance the NaviGaze software to enable profoundly disabled persons to operate computers. (Running on a Windows-based computer equipped with a video camera aimed at the user’s head, the original NaviGaze software processes the user’s...

Briefs : Medical
Epiretinal Prosthesis Surgically Implanted in the Eye

In a healthy eye, the photoreceptors (rods and cones) on the retina convert light into tiny electrochemical impulses that are sent through the optic nerve and into the brain, where they are decoded into images. If the photoreceptors no longer function correctly — due to conditions such as...

Briefs : Sensors/Data Acquisition
Miniature Atom-Based Magnetic Sensor

Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the German national metrology institute have used a miniature atom-based magnetic sensor to successfully track a human heartbeat, confirming the device’s potential for biomedical applications.

Briefs : Medical
Wearable, Artificially Intelligent, Bionic Device

eLEGS is a wearable, artificially intelligent, bionic device that enables people with paralysis to stand up and walk again. The exoskeleton is battery-powered and rechargeable, fitting comfortably and securely over clothing.

Briefs : Medical
Experimental Walking Assist Device With Body Weight Support System

An experimental walking assist device has been developed to help support body weight and reduce the load on the user’s legs while walking, going up and down stairs, and in a semi-crouching position. The device reduces the load on leg muscles and joints (in the hip, knees, and...

Briefs : Medical
Electrocardiography (ECG) Necklace

Integrated wearable monitoring systems based on body area networks (BANs) enable continuous, reliable, and long-term monitoring of physio- and biological signals on the move, leading to wearable health solutions for next-generation healthcare, wellness, and lifestyle. An electrocardiography (ECG) necklace has...

Briefs : Medical
Tear-Based Glucose Sensor for Diabetes Monitoring

Diabetic control typically requires daily monitoring of blood glucose levels. This involves finger pricking 2–10 times a day in order to obtain a sample for assay. Many find the finger prick tedious or painful and fall into noncompliance. Others may also dislike the assorted “paraphernalia”...

Briefs : Medical
Microgravity-Enhanced Stem Cell Selection

Stem cells, both embryonic and adult, promise to revolutionize the practice of medicine in the future. In order to realize this potential, a number of hurdles must be overcome. Most importantly, the signaling mechanisms necessary to control the differentiation of stem cells into tissues of interest...

Briefs : Medical
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurological Disorders by Millimeter-Wave Stimulation

Increasingly, millimeter waves are being employed for telecomm, radar, and imaging applications. To date in the U.S, however, very few investigations on the impact of this radiation on biological systems at the cellular level have been undertaken. In the beginning,...

Briefs : Medical
Maintaining Sterility Assurance Level in Medical Device Design

A medical device undergoing design and classified as sterile will be confronted with various obstacles, not the least of which is how to determine and maintain its proposed Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) as it approaches its ultimate goal: delivery to market.

Briefs : Medical
Utilizing Machine Vision Engines for Advanced Quality Control and Object Detection

Incorporating machine vision engines into an OEM system with automated handling provides a wide range of benefits to the manufacturer. Machine vision engines are self-contained vision systems that include the optics, lighting, image sensor, electronics, and...

Briefs : Medical
Biosensing Technology Offers Advanced Diagnostic Capabilities

Electronic biosensing technology could someday displace the multi-welled microplate, long a standard tool in biomedical research and diagnostic laboratories. Essentially arrays of tiny test tubes, microplates have been used for decades to simultaneously test multiple samples for their...

Briefs : Manufacturing & Prototyping
Single, Stationary Lens Able to Create Microscopic 3D Images

A lens that enables microscopic objects to be seen from nine different angles at once to create a 3D image has been developed. Other 3D microscopes use multiple lenses or cameras that move around an object; the new lens is the first single, stationary lens to create microscopic 3D...

Briefs : Medical
Cubic-Millimeter Energy-Autonomous Wireless Intraocular Pressure Monitor

A prototype implantable eye pressure monitor for glaucoma patients is believed to contain the first complete millimeter-scale computing system. The pressure monitor is designed to be implanted in the eye to conveniently and continuously track the progress of glaucoma, a...

Briefs : Medical
Laser Sintering for Customized Medical Applications

Engineers have long been aware of the potential of laser sintering to create innovative and beneficial medical products. Because it is an additive (layer-by-layer) manufacturing process, laser sintering can build parts free of the traditional constraints imposed by machining or...

Briefs : Medical
Blood Pressure Monitoring Tool

The MDMouse system incorporates a pre-existing medical device into a conventional computer control mouse. The tool is designed to measure blood pressure outside of the medical environment, and to provide that information for use by individuals, clinical evaluation companies (CROs), healthcare providers, and...

Briefs : Manufacturing & Prototyping
Die Extrusion Technology for Medical Tubing Applications

Although the concept of nanotechnology (controlling matter on an atomic scale) dates back to 1959, it is only now becoming more commercially realized. It has the potential to challenge the way all products are extruded in almost every type of medical tubular or related industrial product...

Briefs : Photonics/Optics
Method of Reducing Stray Energy Burns in Laparoscopic Surgery

Any surgery brings with it risk, both to the patient and the surgeon. However, laparoscopic surgery sometimes brings an additional invisible risk: stray energy burns. Electrosurgical devices and laparoscopic instruments can suffer insulation failures and capacitive coupling,...

Briefs : Medical
Ultra-Miniature Image Sensor

Minimally invasive surgery has increasingly required imaging devices to have the smallest possible dimensions but also deliver high-resolution vision capabilities. There has also been a rising demand for disposable medical devices. With these criteria in mind, in 2004, the first prototype of the NanEye sensor was...

Briefs : Medical
Motion Artifact Extraction Technology for Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement

Non-Invasive Blood Pressure (NIBP) is a widely used vital sign for cardiovascular assessment. Vital signs monitors obtain a non-invasive blood pressure measurement through the use of commercially available OEM blood pressure modules incorporated into their devices....

Briefs : Medical
Corneal Endothelium Delivery Instrument

Corneal endothelial failure is a common cause of corneal transplants. According to the Eye Bank Association of America, transplant tissue distributed for endothelial keratoplasty accounted for 18,221 (43%) of all keratoplasties performed in the US during 2009. Fuchs dystrophy, “other” causes, and...

Briefs : Medical
Software for Image Contrast Enhancement

Whenever images are acquired with a large dynamic range, a problem arises in reproducing these images on a medium (i.e. CRT, paper). There are the restrictions of the recording apparatus (number of reproducible intensity levels, color gamut, and color resolution) as well as environmental factors (flare,...

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