September 2007

Briefs: Software
Designing Rolling-Element Bearings

Bearing Analysis Tool (BAT) is a computer program for designing rolling-element bearings for cryogenic turbomachines. BAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI) that guides the entry of data to develop mathematical models of bearings. The GUI breaks model data into logical subsets that are entered through...

DSS-Prototyper is an open-source, real-time 3D virtual environment software that supports design simulation for the new Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). This is a simulation of NASA's proposed...

Patented in 1991, friction stir welding (FSW) has since been used widely to create strong joints in aluminum alloys. The aircraft industry has started to adapt this...

Computational analysis of fluid-structure interactions (FSI) represents a considerable challenge for most computational analysis codes. Simple one-way coupled problems,...

Briefs: Software
Solving Equations of Multibody Dynamics

Darts++ is a computer program for solving the equations of motion of a multibody system or of a multibody model of a dynamic system. It is intended especially for use in dynamical simulations performed in designing and analyzing, and developing software for the control of, complex mechanical systems....

Briefs: Software
Analysis of Complex Valve and Feed Systems

A numerical framework for analysis of complex valve systems supports testing of propulsive systems by simulating key valve and control system components in the test loop. In particular, it is designed to enhance the analysis capability in terms of identifying system transients and quantifying the valve...

Briefs: Software
Programs for Testing an SSME-Monitoring System

A suite of computer programs has been developed for special test equipment (STE) that is used in verification testing of the Health Management Computer Integrated Rack Assembly (HMC-IRA), a ground- based system of analog and digital electronic hardware and software for "flight-like" testing for...

Radiant Energy Display and Analysis Software Package (REDAP) is a computer program for processing antenna-radiation- pattern data that have been preprocessed by a data-collection program...

Payload Operations Support Team Tools is a software system that assists in (1) development and testing of software for payloads to be flown aboard the space shuttles and (2) training of payload...

The Interactive Coverage Analysis Tool (iCAT) is an interactive desktopcomputer program serving to (1) support planning of coverage, and management of usage of frequencies, of current and...

Briefs: Software
Soft Real-Time PID Control on a VME Computer

microPID (μPID) is a computer program for real-time proportional + integral + derivative (PID) control of a translation stage in a Fourier-transform ultraviolet spectrometer. μPID implements a PID control loop over a position profile at sampling rate of 8 kHz (sampling period 125 μs). The...

A package of software has been developed to execute a raw binary image of the space shuttle flight software for simulation of the computational effects of operation of space shuttle avionics. This software can...

Briefs: Software
Robust, Flexible Motion Control for the Mars Explorer Rovers

The Mobility Flight Software, running on computers aboard the Mars Explorer Rover (MER) robotic vehicles Spirit and Opportunity, affords the robustness and flexibility of control to enable safe and effective operation of these vehicles in traversing natural terrain. It can make the...

Briefs: Software
Improved Path Planning Onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers

A revised version of the AutoNav (autonomous navigation with hazard avoidance) software running onboard each Mars Exploration Rover (MER) affords better obstacle avoidance than does the previous version. Both versions include GESTALT (Grid-based Estimation of Surface Traversability...

Briefs: Software
Inertial Measurements for Aero-assisted Navigation (IMAN)

IMAN is a Python tool that provides inertial sensor-based estimates of spacecraft trajectories within an atmospheric influence. It provides Kalman filterderived spacecraft state estimates based upon data collected onboard, and is shown to perform at a level comparable to the conventional...

Briefs: Software
Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation

The Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation Software (S5) toolkit provides solar-sail designers with an integrated environment for designing optimal solar-sail trajectories, and then studying the attitude dynamics/ control, navigation, and trajectory control/ correction of sails during realistic mission simulations....

Briefs: Software
Deep Space Network Antenna Logic Controller

The Antenna Logic Controller (ALC) software controls and monitors the motion control equipment of the 4,000- metric-ton structure of the Deep Space Network 70-meter antenna. This program coordinates the control of 42 hydraulic pumps, while monitoring several interlocks for personnel and equipment...

Briefs: Software
Modeling Magnetic Properties in EZTB

A software module that calculates magnetic properties of a semiconducting material has been written for incorporation into, and execution within, the Easy (Modular) Tight-Binding (EZTB) software infrastructure. [EZTB is designed to model the electronic structures of semiconductor devices ranging from bulk...

Briefs: Software
Modeling Carbon and Hydrocarbon Molecular Structures in EZTB

A software module that models the electronic and mechanical aspects of hydrocarbon molecules and carbon molecular structures on the basis of first principles has been written for incorporation into, and execution within, the Easy (Modular) Tight-Binding (EZTB) software infrastructure,...

Briefs: Software
BigView Image Viewing on Tiled Displays

BigView allows for interactive panning and zooming of images of arbitrary size on desktop PCs running Linux. Additionally, it can work in a multi-screen environment where multiple PCs cooperate to view a single, large image. Using this software, one can explore — on relatively modest machines —...

Briefs: Software
Rapid Analysis of Mass Distribution of Radiation Shielding

Radiation Shielding Evaluation Toolset (RADSET) is a computer program that rapidly calculates the spatial distribution of mass of an arbitrary structure for use in ray-tracing analysis of the radiation-shielding properties of the structure. RADSET was written to be used in conjunction...

Briefs: Software
Software Compensates Electronic-Nose Readings for Humidity

A computer program corrects for the effects of humidity on the readouts of an array of chemical sensors (an "electronic nose"). To enable the use of this program, the array must incorporate an independent humidity sensor in addition to sensors designed to detect analytes other than water...

Briefs: Software
Imaging Sensor Flight and Test Equipment Software

The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) is one of the components onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and was designed to detect and locate lightning over the tropics. The LIS flight code was developed to run on a single onboard digital signal processor, and has operated...

Briefs: Software
Space Propulsion Design and Analysis

This software provides an improved methodology for predicting launcher base pressure and heat loads for RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motor) launchers by accounting for complex anisotropic stress/ strains and variable turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. A "building block" approach to turbulence model...

Briefs: Software
Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 2

The Atmospheric Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing the readings of the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. AIRS...

Briefs: Software
PREDICTS

PREDICTS is a computer program that predicts the frequencies, as functions of time, of signals to be received by a radio science receiver — in this case, a special-purpose digital receiver dedicated to analysis of signals received by an antenna in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). Unlike other software used in the DSN, PREDICTS...

Briefs: Software
Analyzing Responses of Chemical Sensor Arrays

NASA is developing a third-generation electronic nose (ENose) capable of continuous monitoring of the International Space Station's cabin atmosphere for specific, harmful airborne contaminants. Previous generations of the ENose have been described in prior NASA Tech Briefs issues.

Briefs: Software
Triaxial Probe Magnetic Data Analysis

The Triaxial Magnetic Moment Analysis software uses measured magnetic field test data to compute dipole and quadrupole moment information from a hardware element. It is used to support JPL projects needing magnetic control and an understanding of the spacecraftgenerated magnetic fields.

Briefs: Software
Parallelization of the Coupled Earthquake Model

This Web-based tsunami simulation system allows users to remotely run a model on JPL's supercomputers for a given undersea earthquake. At the time of this reporting, predicting tsunamis on the Internet has never happened before. This new code directly couples the earthquake model and the ocean...

Briefs: Software
Modeling of Radiative Transfer in Protostellar Disks

This program implements a spectral line, radiative transfer tool for interpreting Spitzer Space Telescope observations by matching them with models of protostellar disks for improved understanding of planet and star formation. The Spitzer Space Telescope detects gasphase molecules in the...

Briefs: Software
KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as...

Briefs: Software
High-Performance Tiled WMS and KML Web Server

This software is an Apache 2.0 module implementing a high-performance map server to support interactive map viewers and virtual planet client software. It can be used in applications that require access to very-high-resolution geolocated images, such as GIS, virtual planet applications, and flight...

Briefs: Software
Displaying Properties of PDFs

PDFVis is a computer program that assists in visualization of uncertainty as represented by a probability density function (PDF) located at each grid cell in a spatial domain. PDFVis performs the following functions:

The Flyby Geometry Optimization Tool is a computer program for computing trajectories and trajectory-altering impulsive maneuvers for spacecraft used in radio relay of scientific data to Earth from an...

Briefs: Software
WMAP C&DH Software

The command- and-data- handling (C&DH) software of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) spacecraft functions as the sole interface between (1) the spacecraft and its instrument subsystem and (2) ground operations equipment.

This software includes a command-decoding and -distribution system, a telemetry/...

Livingstone2 is a reusable, artificial intelligence (AI) software system designed to assist spacecraft, life support systems, chemical plants, or other complex systems by operating with...

Briefs: Software
Modular Filter and Source-Management Upgrade of RADAC

In an upgrade of the Range Data Acquisition Computer (RADAC) software, a modular software object library was developed to implement required functionality for filtering of flight-vehicle- tracking data and management of tracking-data sources. (The RADAC software is used to process...

Briefs: Software
CASPER Version 2.0

The Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) computer program has been updated to version 2.0. A prototype version was reported in "Software for Continuous Replanning During Execution" (NPO-20972), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 7 (April 2002), page 67. To recapitulate: CASPER is designed to...

Supplements
SOFTWARE Tech Briefs
sponsored by

co-sponsored by

Software Tech Briefs is a special supplement to NASA Tech Briefs. Download the digital version (PDF) at right to learn about 59 new software programs outlined in the table of contents below.

Information Sharing Protocol Advanced Tool of Math (ISPATOM) is an application program allowing for the streamlined generation of "comps," which subscribe to streams of...

Briefs: Software
Program Management Tool

The Program Management Tool (PMT) is a comprehensive, Web-enabled business intelligence software tool for assisting program and project managers within NASA enterprises in gathering, comprehending, and disseminating information on the progress of their programs and projects. The PMT provides planning and management...

A computer program implements the algorithm described in "Hypothetical Scenario Generator for Fault-Tolerant Diagnosis" (NPO-42516), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 71. To...

Briefs: Software
Automatic Command Sequence Generation

Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database...

Briefs: Software
Mission Simulation Toolkit

The Mission Simulation Toolkit (MST) is a flexible software system for autonomy research. It was developed as part of the Mission Simulation Facility (MSF) project that was started in 2001 to facilitate the development of autonomous planetary robotic missions. Autonomy is a key enabling factor for robotic exploration....

Briefs: Software
Model Checker for Java Programs

Java Pathfinder (JPF) is a verification and testing environment for Java that integrates model checking, program analysis, and testing. JPF consists of a custom-made Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that interprets bytecode, combined with a search interface to allow the complete behavior of a Java program to be...

Briefs: Software
Parallel-Processing Software for Correlating Stereo Images

A computer program implements parallel-processing algorithms for correlating images of terrain acquired by stereoscopic pairs of digital stereo cameras on an exploratory robotic vehicle (e.g., a Mars rover). Such correlations are used to create three-dimensional computational models of...

Briefs: Software
Web-Based Environment for Maintaining Legacy Software

"Advanced Tool Integration Environment" ("ATIE") is the name of both a software system and a Web-based environment created by the system for maintaining an archive of legacy software and expertise involved in developing the legacy software. ATIE can also be used in modifying legacy software...

A report discusses a computer vision algorithm for position estimation to enable precision landing during planetary descent. The Descent Image Motion Estimation System for the Mars Exploration...

Briefs: Software
Grid Task Execution

IPG Execution Service is a framework that reliably executes complex jobs on a computational grid, and is part of the IPG service architecture designed to support location-independent computing. The new grid service enables users to describe the platform on which they need a job to run, which allows the service to locate the...

The SharpKBE software provides a graphical user interface environment for domain experts to build and manage knowledge base systems. Knowledge bases can be exported/translated to various target languages...

Briefs: Software
Simulating Operations at a Spaceport

SPACESIM is a computer program for detailed simulation of operations at a spaceport. SPACESIM is being developed to greatly improve existing spaceports and to aid in designing, building, and operating future spaceports, given that there is a worldwide trend in spaceport operations from very expensive,...

Briefs: Software
Web-Based Real-Time Emergency Monitoring

The Web-based Real-Time Asset Monitoring (RAM) module for emergency operations and facility management enables emergency personnel in federal agencies and local and state governments to monitor and analyze data in the event of a natural disaster or other crisis that threatens a large number of people and...

Briefs: Software
Parallel Computing With Satellite Orbit Analysis Program

This software innovation speeds up the computation time of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) tool by parallelizing the code using the message- passing interface (MPI) library. The speed increases almost linearly with the number of processors, allowing the perstudy duration of the...

Briefs: Software
Periodic, On-Demand, and User-Specified Information Reconciliation

POUR is a framework that accepts periodic information updates, collects information on demand, and accepts user-specified information while presenting a single unified view to the user. The primary functionality of POUR is through its query interface. A query consists of any...

Briefs: Software
Information Metacatalog for a Grid

SWIM is a Software Information Metacatalog that gathers detailed information about the software components and packages installed on a grid resource. Information is currently gathered for Executable and Linking Format (ELF) executables and shared libraries, Java classes, shell scripts, and Perl and Python...

Briefs: Software
Automated Sequence Generation Process and Software

"Automated sequence generation" (autogen) signifies both a process and software used to automatically generate sequences of commands to operate various spacecraft. Autogen requires fewer workers than are needed for older manual sequence-generation processes and reduces sequence-generation times...

A master metadata repository (MMR) software system manages the storage and searching of metadata pertaining to data from national and international satellite sources of the Global...

Briefs: Software
Real-Time Data Display

RT-Display is a MATLAB- based data acquisition environment designed to use a variety of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware to digitize analog signals to a standard data format usable by other post-acquisition data analysis tools. This software presents the acquired data in real time using a variety of...

Briefs: Software
Collaborative Resource Allocation

Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project...

Products
Phantom® V7.3

Vision Research, Wayne, NJ, has introduced an upgraded version of the Phantom® V7.3 digital high-speed camera that allows users to capture 500,000 pictures per second. The camera has two operating modes. In standard mode,...

NASA's IPP provides leveraged technology for NASA's mission directorates, programs, and projects through investments and technology partnerships with industry,...

Techs for License
Diagnostic Pattern Recognition Using Mid-IR Spectroscopy

By applying mid-infrared spectroscopy to bodily fluids, this suite of technologies offers the potential for quick, accurate, and inexpensive diagnostic support for a variety of diseases in humans or animals. Every disease or condition results in quantitative imbalances in the “normally...

This technology provides a method of laserdrilling any component under the control of real-time feedback to provide for predictable, calibrated fluid flow through one or...

Tech Needs
Solar-Based Hydrogen Generation Technology

A company seeks to increase the efficiency of solar-based hydrogen generation systems by device technologies that can help to develop a new module with at least 16% solar energy utilization efficiency. Examples include the Z-scheme method and tandem type, which has achieved a Solar Energy Utilization...

Tech Needs
Making Metal Packaging Lighter

Because of increasing cost pressures on high-volume metal packaging, a manufacturer needs to make each unit weight of metal (steel and aluminum) go further. Technologies are sought that make metal packaging lighter and enhance the physical performance (like tensile strength, stiffness, etc). This could include, for...

Application Briefs: Sensors/Data Acquisition
New Testing Equipment Helps NASA Prepare for Telescope Launch
LabVIEW FPGA
National Instruments
Austin, TX
888-280-7645
www.ni.com

NASA’s next-generation successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, the James Webb...

NIRSpec STM Focal Plane Detector
ITT Corp.
White Plains, NY
914-641-2000
www.itt.com

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is scheduled for...

Software techniques for use in the global positioning system (GPS)1,2 have recently captured the growing interest of communication and navigation...

A technique for suppressing sublimation of key elements from skutterudite compounds in advanced thermoelectric devices has been demonstrated. The essence of the technique is to cover...

Briefs: Materials
Rapid Fabrication of Carbide Matrix/Carbon Fiber Composites

Composites of zirconium carbide matrix material reinforced with carbon fibers can be fabricated relatively rapidly in a process that includes a melt infiltration step. Heretofore, these and other ceramic matrix composites have been made in a chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process...

Ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTCs) are a class of materials that include the diborides of metals such as hafnium and zirconium. The materials are of interest to NASA for their potential utility as sharp...

Briefs: Materials
Improved C/SiC Ceramic Composites Made Using PIP

Improved carbon-fiber- reinforced SiC ceramic-matrix composite (C/SiC CMC) materials, suitable for fabrication of thick-section structural components, are producible by use of a combination of raw materials and processing conditions different from such combinations used in the prior art. In...

Briefs: Materials
Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum

A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist...

Briefs: Materials
Nanorod-Based Fast-Response Pressure-Sensitive Paints

A proposed program of research and development would be devoted to exploitation of nanomaterials in pressuresensitive paints (PSPs), which are used on wind-tunnel models for mapping surface pressures associated with flow fields. Heretofore, some success has been achieved in measuring...

Microscopic rectennas would supply DC power to microdevices.

A microrectenna that would operate at a frequency of 2.5 THz has been designed and partially fabricated. The circuit...

Briefs: Electronics & Computers
MCM Polarimetric Radiometers for Planar Arrays

A polarimetric radiometer that operates at a frequency of 40 GHz has been designed and built as a prototype of multiple identical units that could be arranged in a planar array for scientific...

Briefs: Electronics & Computers
Two-Band, Low-Loss Microwave Window

A window for a high-sensitivity microwave receiving system allows microwave radiation to pass through to a cryogenically cooled microwave feed system in a vacuum chamber, while keeping ambient air out of...

Photonic local oscillators and modulators that include whispering-gallery- mode (WGM) optical resonators have been proposed as power-efficient devices for generating and detecting radiation...

Briefs: Electronics & Computers
Aperture-Coupled Thin-Membrane L-Band Antenna

The upper part of the figure depicts an aperture-coupled L-band antenna comprising patterned metal conductor films supported on two thin polyimide membranes separated by an air gap. In this...

Focal-plane arrays of semiconductor quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are being developed as superior alternatives to prior infrared imagers, including imagers based on...

A proposed laser-based instrument would quickly measure the approximate distance and approximate direction to the closest target within its field of view. The instrument would not contain...

Briefs: Electronics & Computers
Miniature L-Band Radar Transceiver

A miniature L-band transceiver that operates at a carrier frequency of 1.25 GHz has been developed as part of a generic radar electronics module (REM) that would constitute one unit in an array of many...

Briefs: Electronics & Computers
Cathodoluminescent Source of Intense White Light

The device shown in the figure exploits cathodoluminescence to generate intense light in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. This device is suitable for use as a source of...

A system of electronic hardware and software, now undergoing development, automatically estimates the location of a robotic land vehicle in an urban environment using a somewhat...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems
Reverse-Tangent Injection in a Centrifugal Compressor

Injection of working fluid into a centrifugal compressor in the reverse tangent direction has been invented as a way of preventing flow instabilities (stall and surge) or restoring...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems
Capacitors Would Help Protect Against Hypervelocity Impacts

A proposal investigates alternatives to the present "bumper" method of protecting spacecraft against impacts of meteoroids and orbital debris. The proposed method is based on a British highvoltage- capacitance technique for protecting armored vehicles against shapedcharge warheads.

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems
Diaphragm Pump With Resonant Piezoelectric Drive

A diaphragm pump driven by a piezoelectric actuator is undergoing development. This pump is intended to be a prototype of lightweight, highly reliable pumps for circulating cooling liquids in...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems
Improved Quick-Release Pin Mechanism

An improved quick-release pin mechanism supplants a prior such mechanism in which the pin bears a shear load to hold two objects together. The prior mechanism, of a ball-locking design, can fail when vibrations cause balls to fall out. The load-bearing pin is an outer tube with a handle at one end (hereafter...

An anodizing process, at an early stage of development at the time of reporting the information for this article, has shown promise as a means of fabricating alumina nanotemplates...

Briefs: Manufacturing & Prototyping
Fluorine-Based DRIE of Fused Silica

A process of deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) using a fluorine-based gas mixture enhanced by induction-coupled plasma (ICP) has been demonstrated to be effective in forming high-aspect-ratio three-dimensional patterns in fused silica. The patterns are defined in part by an etch mask in the form of a thick,...

Briefs: Manufacturing & Prototyping
Mechanical Alloying for Making Thermoelectric Compounds

An economical room-temperature mechanical alloying process has been shown to be an effective means of making a homogeneous powder that can be hot-pressed to synthesize a thermoelectric...

An automated flying-insect detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in...

A laboratory blackbody cavity has been designed and built for calibrating infrared radiometers used to measure radiant temperatures in the range from about 200 to about 273 K. In this...

Calligraphic poling is a technique for generating an arbitrary, possibly complex pattern of localized reversal in the direction of permanent polarization in a wafer of LiNbO3 or other...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Composite Pulse Tube

A modification of the design of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube cryocooler reduces axial thermal conductance while preserving radial thermal conductance. It is desirable to minimize axial thermal conductance in the pulse-tube wall to minimize leakage of heat between the warm and cold ends of the pulse tube. At the same time,...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Photometric Calibration of Consumer Video Cameras

Equipment and techniques have been developed to implement a method of photometric calibration of consumer video cameras for imaging of objects that are sufficiently narrow or sufficiently distant to be optically equivalent to point or line sources. Heretofore, it has been difficult to calibrate...

A study of four previously published computational criteria for identifying vortices in high-pressure flows has led to the selection of one of them as the best. This development can...

The risk of premature failure of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), typically composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), compromises the reliability of TBCs used to provide thermal protection...

A class of proposed thermionic cooling devices would incorporate precise arrays of metal nanowires as electron emitters. The proposed devices could be highly miniaturized, enabling...

A method of approximating a scalar function of n independent variables (where n is a positive integer) to arbitrary accuracy has been developed. This method is expected to be...

In the past, one of the world’s leading manufacturers of fuel tanks used coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) to inspect first articles. The geometry of the tanks is so...

A method of automated recognition of three-dimensional (3D) features in images generated by ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) is undergoing development. GPIR 3D images can be analyzed...

An algorithm has been developed to enable a computer aboard a robot to autonomously plan the path of the manipulator arm of the robot to avoid collisions between the arm and any...

Application Briefs: Photonics/Optics
Nanotechnology’s Role in Mid-Infrared Laser Development

Progress in developing improved semiconductor lasers with emission in the mid-IR spectral region (≈3 μm to ≈15 μm) has depended heavily on the use of nanometer-scaled...

A recently conceived method of automated diagnosis of a complex electromechanical system affords a complete set of capabilities for hybrid diagnosis in the case in which the state of...

Briefs: Information Technology
State-Estimation Algorithm Based on Computer Vision

An algorithm and software to implement the algorithm are being developed as means to estimate the state (that is, the position and velocity) of an autonomous vehicle, relative to a visible nearby target object, to provide guidance for maneuvering the vehicle. In the original intended...

Briefs: Information Technology
Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

Accumulate-repeat- accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate- repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable...

Briefs: Photonics/Optics
Electroform/Plasma-Spray Laminates for X-Ray Optics

Electroform/ plasma-spray laminates have shown promise as lightweight, strong, low-thermal-expansion components for x-ray optics. The basic idea is to exploit both (1) the well-established art of fabrication of optical components by replication and (2) plasma spraying as a means of reinforcing...

Briefs: Medical
Ultraviolet-Resistant Bacterial Spores

A document summarizes a study in which it was found that spores of the SAFR-032 strain of Bacillus pumilus can survive doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, γ radiation, and hydrogen peroxide in proportions much greater than those of other bacteria. The study was part of a continuing effort to understand...

A generic design has been conceived to suppress the Raman effect in whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators that have high values of the resonance quality factor (Q). Although it is...

Briefs: Medical
Effects of Bone Morphogenic Proteins on Engineered Cartilage

A report describes experiments on the effects of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) on engineered cartilage grown in vitro. In the experiments, bovine calf articular chondrocytes were seeded onto biodegradable polyglycolic acid scaffolds and cultured in, variously, a control medium or a...

Two procedures have been devised for tuning a photonic filter that comprises multiple whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) disk resonators. As used here, “tuning” signifies locking the...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems
Launching Payloads Into Orbit at Relatively Low Cost

A report proposes the development of a system for launching payloads into orbit at about one-fifth the cost per unit payload weight of current systems. The system would be based on the formerly secret PILOT microsatellite- launching system developed in response to the Soviet launch of...

A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in “One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms”...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Telescope Formation at L2 for Observing Earth’s Atmosphere

Two documents describe a proposed Earth-atmosphere observatory to orbit the Sun at the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point — a point of unstable equilibrium in the shadow of the Earth, about 1.5 million km from the Earth along an outward projection of the Earth-Sun axis. The observatory...

A method and apparatus for mapping between the positions of fibers at opposite ends of incoherent fiber-optic bundles have been invented to enable the use of such bundles to transmit images in...

FEI (Hillsboro, OR) has released the PhenomTM microscope, bridging the performance gap between optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) technologies. Capable of yielding...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

Luna Technologies (Roanoke, VA) has announced the Optical Backscatter Reflectometer (OBRTM) 4400, an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) that can diagnose, locate, and troubleshoot problems...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Modular LED Test System

Edmund Optics (Barrington, NJ) has released the MLED modular LED test and measurement systems available in three configurations for making measurements on discrete LEDs, arrays, and assemblies. The MLED-2 version...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Continuous Wave Laser

OSRAM Opto Semiconductors (Regensburg, Germany) has introduced a continuous wave laser offering thermal resistance of 2.5 K/W, an output of up to 6W, and a footprint measuring 6.0mm × 4.5 mm. It emits light at a...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Laser Diode

Photonic Products (Hertfordshire, UK) has launched the Opnext HL6750MG 685nm Al-GaInP laser diode with a multi-quantum well structure. It has an optical output power of 50 mW CW, a package size of 5.6 mm, and a built-in...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Laser Alignment Module

BFi OPTiLAS (Evry, France) has developed the 300-0100-00 series 645nm laser alignment module offering a range of interchangeable, pre-aligned, precision optics: 88 degrees cross, 58 degrees line, 58 degrees cross/spot....

Products: Photonics/Optics
UV-Conversion Screens

Laser Components (Hudson, NH) offers the LDT-300B and LDT-300BG UV-conversion screens that can make UV laser radiation from 190 nm — 390 nm visible. The emission is based on “photon up conversion” effects....

Products: Photonics/Optics
Micromachining Laser

The RAPID industrial micromachining laser from RPMC Lasers (O’Fallon, MO) is a >1 MHz diode pumped Nd:YVO4 picosecond laser with 2W average power at 1064 nm. It delivers pulses at ≥640 kHz and removes...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Tunable Single Frequency Diode Laser

TOPTICA Photonics AG (Munich, German) has introduced the DL pro 780, a Littrow-type grating stabilized diode laser featuring a wavelength tuning range of 765 nm -795 nm, optical output power up to 80 mW,...

Products: Photonics/Optics
UV Excimer-Based Micromachining System

Photon Machines (San Diego, CA) has announced the MicroMaster V5, a UV excimer-based micromachining system offering 4-6 ns pulse length and 193 nm or 248 nm wavelength output. It also features 1 μm...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Machine Vision Digital Camera

Prosilica (Burnaby, BC) has added the GigE VisionTM GC750 Gigabit Ethernet camera to its line of machine vision cameras. The GC750 connects directly to the Gigabit Ethernet port on the host computer...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Thin Film Optical Coating

Deposition Sciences, Inc. (Santa Rosa, CA) has developed a line of thin film optical coatings that operate in the 3 - 5 micron and the 8 - 12 micron infrared (IR) spectral regions. A variety of coating types...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Laser Beam Expanders

The OSL laser beam expanders from Optical Surfaces (Surrey, UK) are designed to provide achromatic expansion of a collimated input source. With aluminum coatings they can operate from the UV to far IR range...

Products: Photonics/Optics
White SMD LEDs

Vishay Intertechnology (Malvern, PA) has released the VLMW1100 series of ultrabright white SMD LEDs that utilize InGaN technology to provide brightness. It comes in a 0603 footprint with dimensions of 1.6 mm × 0.8 mm...

Kinetic Systems (Boston, MA) has introduced the series 5500 VIBRALITE AL nonmagnetic breadboards that feature high natural frequency nominal broadband damping, flatness of ±0.004" over a 24" × 24"...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Tunable Laser System

Aculight Corp. (Bothell, WA) has announced the ArgosTM single-frequency, continuous-wave (CW) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) that provides multi-Watt, widely tunable, near- to mid-infrared output. Argos is a...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Multi-Laser Engine

Point Source (Hamble, UK) has developed the iFLEX-ViperTM multi-laser engine that incorporates up to six laser wavelengths, covering the entire visible spectrum range from 405 to 640 nm. It includes a...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Conduction Cooled Fiber Coupled Modules

DILAS (Tucson, AZ) offers a line of conduction cooled fiber coupled modules supplying power levels of 30W, 40W, 50W, 100W, 200W, and 400W, at standard wavelengths of 790 nm to 976 nm based on a...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Erbium-Doped Amplifier Fiber

The EDF-T9 from StockerYale (Salem, NH) is an erbium-doped amplifier fiber that uses the company’s proprietary doping method to enable homogeneous glass matrix and control aluminum content. The EDF-T9...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Commercial Grade Optics

Anchor Optics (Barrington, NJ) has added 14 new commercial grade optics to its product line including commercial grade Fresnel lenses and Kodak Wratten filters, right angle mirrors, penta prisms, color...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Picosecond Laser

High Q Laser Production (Hohenems, Austria) has introduced the mode locked picoTRAINTM Green IC-532-12000, a picosecond laser featuring integrated second harmonic generation (SHG) delivering 20W at a wavelength of...

Products: Photonics/Optics
Science Grade Infrared Camera

FLIR Systems (Boston, MA) has introduced the ThermoVision® SC8000 MWIR infrared camera. Capable of generating over 1.0 million pixels for a single thermal image, the SC8000 produces full window...

Omega Optical (Brattleboro, VT) has developed three new filter sets for use with CoralHueTM Keima-Red fluorescent protein. The new filter sets include versions with both...

Medical imaging is an information processing technique that takes data samples from medical devices such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computer tomography (CT)...

With a laundry list of design constraints, including a combination of real-time requirements, reliability/durability requests, and functionality and performance needs, it’s not...

Articles: Electronics & Computers
Using RapidIO® Technology as a System-Level Fabric

Both Serial RapidIO and Ethernet are being used as a backplane interconnect technology in a wide range of embedded applications. Many suppliers support both standards and let designers...

Application Briefs: Electronics & Computers
Ruggedized Hard Disk Drives Keep Data Safe In Harsh Environments

Conventional hard disk drives (HDDs) are designed to reliably operate in the hospitable physical surroundings of interior deployments, which are typically characterized by mild...

Products: Electronics & Computers
Booth 1704-Fanless PC/104-Plus Single Board Computer

WinSystems (Arlington, TX) has introduced the PPM-GX, a PC/104-Plus compatible single board computer (SBC) that operates throughout the temperature range of - 40°to 85°C without...

Products: Electronics & Computers
Booth 213-Multichannel LVDT Signal Conditioner

ACCESS IO Products Inc. (San Diego, CA) has developed the Model LVDT- 8A, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) signal conditioner board offering eight channels of signal...

Products: Electronics & Computers
Booth 501-Human Machine Interface

Kontron (Poway, CA) has announced the Kontron Barracuda Human Machine Interface (HMI) family of products suitable for use in military command, control, communications, and computers where a display or...

Renesas Technology America, Inc. (Tokyo, Japan), has launched two R32C/118 group microcontrollers (MCUs) offering 512KB on-chip flash memory and speeds of up to 48 MHz...

STMicroelectronics (Geneva, Switzerland) has unveiled the Structured Architecture of Bridges and Regulators (S.A.B.Re®), an IC offering a set of configurable and customizable analog...

Products: Electronics & Computers
Booth 804-Embedded Internet Connectivity Software

Allegro Software Development Corp. (Boxborough, MA) has launched its RomPager 4.6 embedded Internet connectivity software suite giving OEMs the ability to integrate connectivity features into...

Ampro Computers (San Joe, CA) has introduced the ReadyPanel™ Industrial Panel PC for industrial automation, human-machine interface (HMI), and operator control applications. The...

Products: Electronics & Computers
Booth 1716-5U Five-Slot AdvancedTCA Chassis

The aTCA-8505 from ADLINK Technology (Irvine, CA), is an AdvancedTCA chassis with shelf manager and dual hot-swappable I2C controlled fan trays. The aTCA-8505 features a push-pull design for a...

Embedded Systems Design (Elkridge, MD) has released the StreamBlade™ SOE-4, a short form FPGA-based PCI board designed to process real-time streaming data. The device uses...

Products: Electronics & Computers
Booth 306-Dual-LAN, Mini-ITX Mainboard

VIA Technologies (Taipei, Taiwan) has announced the VIA EPIA LTSeries Mini-ITX mainboard powered by a 1.5 GHz or fanless 1.0 GHz VIA C7 processor.

Products: Electronics & Computers
Booth 1121-Air-Over Conduction-Cooled Air Transport Rack Enclosure

Carlo Gavazzi Computing Solutions (Brockton, MA) offers the 717 Series of air-over conduction-cooled air transport rack (ATR) enclosures engineered for harsh environments in both air-and land-based military applications. The 717 Series enclosures use an external fan that, when...

Products: Electronics & Computers
Booth 1117-Linux Quick-Start Support Packages

VersaLogic Corp. (Eugene OR) provides Linux board support packages (BSPs) for two of its single board computers, the Gecko and Puma. The packages are based on the Debian Linux, which has been...

Products: Electronics & Computers
Booth 712-Mini Serial Attached SCSI Connectors

Mouser Electronics (Mansfield, TX) has expanded its 3M® line of products with the addition of the Mini Serial Attached SCSI (mini-SAS) connector solutions. The RoHS compliant mini-SAS...

Microchip Technology (Chandler, AZ) has announced the eight-member PIC18F87J50 family of 8-bit microcontrollers with an integrated and certified USB 2.0 full-speed, 12 Mbps...

Moxa Technologies, Inc. (Taipei, Taiwan) offers the DA- 660, DA-661, DA-662, and DA-663 models of the ThinkCore RISCbased embedded computers series designed for use in harsh...

The KAT6200 quad-core AdvancedTCA® blade from Emerson Network Power (Madison, WI) is a field replaceable ATCA server blade featuring a pair of dualcore, Intel Xeon processors, a...

Products: Electronics & Computers
32-Bit CompactPCI Backplane

Elma Bustronic (Fremont, CA) has developed a 3U 32-bit CompactPCI (cPCI) backplane in a 6-slot size. It features hundreds of I/O pins across the backplane that are undefined on the 64-bit version. The backplanes are PICMG 2.16-compliant and utilize controlled-impedance stripline design resulting in virtually zero...

Watlow (St. Louis, MO) announces the introduction of its EZZONE ™ PM controller in the popular 1/32nd and 1/16th DIN panel mount package sizes.

Products: Electronics & Computers
Intel Core 2 Duo Mini PC

Stealth Computer Corporation (Toronto, Canada) has introduced the LPC-450 mini PC. Measuring 5.7"(W) x 9.9"(D) x 1.65"(H), the LPC- 450 mini PC features a multitude of I/O connectivity built into its...

Products: Electronics & Computers
Low Power 65nm FPGA

Altera Corporation (San Jose, CA) announced the shipment of the EP3C120, the largest member of its new low-cost 65nm Cyclone® III FPGA family. Leveraging Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company's (TSMC's) 65-nm...

Blog
Energy-Saving Roof

A new roof and attic system being developed by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) could reduce homeowners' utility bills by eight percent or more. Active thermal mass components, reflective pigments and coatings, subventing, radiant barriers, and other techniques are all being tested by ORNL's...

Blog
Techs of the Week

This innersole/liner increases foot stability and comfort, and decreases certain sport-specific injuries including plantar fasciitis, calcaneal apophysitis, and inversion - lateral/ankle - sprains. It decreases pronation and is designed to be included with and enhance an athletic shoe.

Click here to respond to this Tech...

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Current Attractions

Embedded Technology (ET) magazine features board-level electronics and COTS solutions for design engineers, as well as a variety of product offerings.

In medical imaging, data samples are taken from devices such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computer tomography (CT) scanners and translated into 2D, 3D, or 4D...

Blog
New ET Advertisers

This monthly review lets you "meet" the new advertisers appearing in Embedded Technology. Here's a sneak peek at the products, services, and offers available from September's first-time advertiser:

Quadros Systems (Houston, TX) offers a suite of RTOS-agnostic stacks, class drivers, and device drivers for USB development...

Blog
Innovate and Win!

Your unique invention could win you $20,000 or other great prizes. Enter your design idea in the 2007 Create the Future Design Contest, presented by SolidWorks Corp. and NASA Tech Briefs. Entries are being accepted in six categories: Machinery, Equipment, and Component Technology; Consumer Products; Medical; Safety and...

Blog
"Star Trek" Medicine

Engineers at the University of Washington are working with doctors at the Harborview Medical Center to create a Star Trek-like "tricorder" device using high-intensity focused ultrasound rays to seal punctured lungs. A lung is essentially a collection of air sacs, and air blocks transmission of ultrasound. But experiments...

Blog
Tech Needs of the Week

A company seeks a range of environmentally and economically driven technologies in high-volume metal packaging with an emphasis on the reduction of packaging materials (including those that are recycled from the waste stream). Technologies should enhance the physical performance characteristics such as tensile strength and...

Blog
Current Attractions

The Phantom® V7.3 digital high-speed camera from Vision Research (Wayne, NJ) has been named NASA Tech Briefs' Product of the Month for September. The upgraded version of the camera captures 500,000 pictures per second and features two operating modes: In standard mode, users can capture images between 6,700 and 190,000...

Blog
Create the Future & Win Big!

The 2007 Create the Future Design Contest, presented by SolidWorks Corp. and NASA Tech Briefs, is open for entries in these categories: Machinery, Equipment, and Component Technology; Consumer Products; Medical; Safety and Security; Transportation; and Sustainable Technologies.

Blog
National Nano Engineering Conference

NASA Tech Briefs' 2007 National Nano Engineering Conference (NNEC), November 14-15 at the Marriott Boston Copley Place, is the premier event focused on current and future developments in engineering innovations at the nanoscale, as well as the commercialization of nanotechnology. The event also includes the...

Blog
New CPR

A biomedical engineer at Purdue University has developed a new method to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) that promises to be more effective than standard CPR. The new method increases bloodflow through the heart by 25 percent over the current method, which has a success rate of only 5 to 10 percent.

Leslie Geddes of...

Blog
Techs of the Week

PharmaDur™ is a polymer-based technology that provides benefits over conventional forms of transdermal drug delivery. Also used for transmucosal and ophthalmic applications, it is a topical application that yields an invisible and imperceptible hydrogel film that creates a monolithic reservoir from which drug substances are...

Blog
Current Attractions

NASA's Innovative Partnerships Program (IPP) provides technology for NASA's mission directorates, programs, and projects through investment and technology partnerships with industry, academia, government agencies, and national labs.

NASA Tech Briefs spoke with Doug Comstock, Director of NASA's Innovative Partnerships...

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Software Tech Briefs

This year's Software Tech Briefs supplement to NASA Tech Briefs is now available for downloading from the NTB Web site.

Sponsored by COMSOL, Software Tech Briefs includes 58 new software programs, developed by NASA and industry, for applications in all areas of design, simulation, and analysis.

COMSOL is the...

Blog
Create the Future & Win Big!

The 2007 Create the Future Design Contest, presented by SolidWorks Corp. and NASA Tech Briefs, is open for entries in these categories: Machinery, Equipment, and Component Technology; Consumer Products; Medical; Safety and Security; Transportation; and Sustainable Technologies. The contest is co-sponsored by COMSOL...

Blog
National Nano Engineering Conference

NASA Tech Briefs' 2007 National Nano Engineering Conference (NNEC), November 14-15 at the Marriott Boston Copley Place, is the premier event focused on current and future developments in engineering innovations at the nanoscale, as well as the commercialization of nanotechnology. The event also includes the...

Blog
Protein Pairing

Scientists have identified two proteins that pair up at the precise location in the ear where sound vibrations are turned into electrical signals. The finding may eventually help researchers develop more precise treatments for hearing loss, a condition that affects more than 32 million people in the United States.

When a...

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Tech Needs of the Week

A company seeks technology for casting ophthalmic lenses with a refractive index of at least 1.67, and Abbe of at least 37. Operating parameters would be to cast lenses at ambient conditions with low odor. Thermal or radiation cure is acceptable for polymerization of lens material, with radiation cure preferred. Click here...

Blog
Battling Bacteria

Doctors rely on a dwindling arsenal of drugs to fight bacterial infections as the bugs keep finding ways to survive. These "superbugs" may be brought to their knees with the discovery by Boston University biomedical engineers of a previously unknown chain of events occurring in bacteria when they are fed antibiotics.

The...

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NASA News

A system of electronic hardware and software that noninvasively tracks the direction of a person's gaze in real time has been developed by researchers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA. The system illuminates the eye with a low-power infrared LED; acquires video images of the pupil, iris, and cornea in the reflected...

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To The Moon

The X PRIZE Foundation and Google announced the Google Lunar X PRIZE, a robotic race to the Moon to win a $30 million prize. Private companies from around the world will compete to land a privately funded robotic rover on the Moon that is capable of completing several mission objectives, including roaming the lunar surface for at...

Blog
Innovate and Win!

Your unique invention could win you $20,000 or other great prizes. Enter your design idea in the 2007 Create the Future Design Contest, presented by SolidWorks Corp. and NASA Tech Briefs. Entries are being accepted in six categories: Machinery, Equipment, and Component Technology; Consumer Products; Medical; Safety and...

Blog
The Dark Web

Terrorists and extremists use the Internet to recruit new members, spread propaganda, and plan attacks. The size and scope of these dark corners of the Web are vast and disturbing. A team of computational scientists at the Artificial Intelligence Lab at the University of Arizona is using new approaches to track terrorists' moves...

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Techs of the Week

An epoxy coating for metals is a highly fluorinated, cross-linked polymer containing finely ground Teflon-like particles that impart permanent lubricity. The coated metal surfaces prepared with this technology have good corrosion resistance and durability. They are useful as seat rails, bushings, guide tracks, or any place...

Blog
Current Attractions

Each month, NTB highlights tech briefs related to a particular area of technology in a special section called Technology Focus. Here are some of the technologies featured in the September issue focus on Composites & Coatings.

- Rapid Fabrication of Carbide Matrix/Carbon Fiber Composites

Researchers at...

Blog
Moving Towards Greatness

An unobtrusive sensor that collects and immediately transmits data from the human body could boost athletic performance. Developed at Imperial College London with funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) in the UK, the new sensor also has potential in healthcare.

The sensor is...

Blog
Long-Life Pump

Researchers at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, have developed a diaphragm pump driven by a piezoelectric actuator. The pump is a prototype of a lightweight pump for circulating cooling liquids in protective garments, high-power electronic circuits, and other medical applications.

The pump contains no sliding...

Blog
New Products

The MDrive 14Plus Motion Control system from Intelligent Motion Systems (Marlborough, CT) combines the motor, driver, controller, and encoder in one system using a NEMA size 14 brushless 1.8-degree motor. It measures 1.9 x 1.4 x 2.0" and includes a programmable controller and programming instruction set. Communication is via...

Blog
Nano Memory

Scientists from the University of Pennsylvania have developed nanowires that can store computer data for 100,000 years and retrieve the data 1,000 times faster than existing portable memory devices such as Flash and micro-drives. The self-assembling nanowire is made of germanium antimony telluride, a phase-changing material that...

Blog
Tech Needs of the Week

A company is seeking an absorbent pad capable of being loaded with a terpanol, which, when saturated, will allow the free flow of air or other gases through its structure. The pad can be made of any thickness or material, and can be used in household, office, and industrial applications. Find out more here.

Blog
Where There's Smoke

Glowing firebrands (burning wood pieces) make for a warm evening in front of the fireplace, but for homeowners in high fire-risk areas, windborne fire material can be a nightmare. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has built a firebrand generator to study how firebrands ignite structures. It generates...

Blog
Create the Future & Win Big!

Your unique invention could win you $20,000 or other great prizes in the 2007 Create the Future Design Contest, presented by SolidWorks Corp. and NASA Tech Briefs. Innovative design ideas are being accepted in six categories: Machinery, Equipment, and Component Technology; Consumer Products; Medical; Safety and...

Blog
Smooth Flying

A new turbulence detection system alerts pilots to patches of rough air as they fly through clouds. The system, designed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and tested by United Airlines on commercial flights, is designed to better protect passengers from injuries caused by turbulence while reducing flight delays...

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Technology Business Briefs

Vertical Take-Off and Landing with Fixed-Wing Speed and Efficiency

This technology, already proven under a US Army contract, creates a hybrid aircraft that combines the best attributes of helicopters with the best attributes of fixed wing aircraft, i.e. VTOL and safe auto-rotation of gyroplanes with the...

Blog
Smart Cars

Cars already automatically lock doors when they sense motion and turn on warning lights if they detect engine problems. But they are about to get a lot smarter.

A research team at Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) is designing cars capable of analyzing human behavior. Future models may, for example, deduce from...

Blog
Techs of the Week

The Biomedical Center in Moscow has produced a vaccine that induces cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) clones and enables them to recognize and selectively kill Listeria- infected cells. As the lifetime of CTL clones is very long (three-seven years or more), the formulation could be used for both prophylaxis and treatment of...

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