Briefs: Electronics & Computers
Modified Coaxial Probe Feeds for Layered Antennas

In a modified configuration of a coaxial probe feed for a layered printed-circuit antenna (e.g., a microstrip antenna), the outer conductor of the coaxial cable extends through the thickness...

Briefs: Electronics & Computers
Detecting Negative Obstacles by Use of Radar

Because such wavelengths are comparable to the characteristic dimensions of terrain features associated with negative hazards, a significant amount of diffraction would occur at such features. In...

Briefs: Test & Measurement
Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud- Physics Measurements

The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data...

Briefs: Software
PixelLearn

PixelLearn is an integrated user-interface computer program for classifying pixels in scientific images. Heretofore, training a machine-learning algorithm to classify pixels in images has been tedious and difficult. PixelLearn provides a graphical user interface that makes it faster and more intuitive, leading to more interactive...

Briefs: Software
New Software for Predicting Charging of Spacecraft

The NASA/Air Force Spacecraft Charging System Analyzer Program (Nascap-2K) is a comprehensive update, revision, and extension of several NASA and Air Force codes for predicting electrical charging of spacecraft. Nascap-2K integrates the capabilities and models included in four independent...

Briefs: Software
Conversion Between Osculating and Mean Orbital Elements

Osculating/Mean Orbital Element Conversion (C version) (OSMEANC) is a C-language computer program that performs precise conversions between osculating and mean classical orbital elements. OSMEANC can be used for precise design of spacecraft missions and maneuvers and precise calculation of...

Briefs: Software
Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure

A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex ndimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the...

Two modern cryogenic variants of the Pound circuit have been devised to increase the frequency stability of microwave oscillators that include cryogenic sapphire-filled cavity...

Briefs: Materials
Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant...

Briefs: Materials
Composite Solid Electrolyte Containing Li+- Conducting Fibers

Improved composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) are being developed for use in lithium-ion power cells. The matrix components of these composites, like those of some prior CSPEs, are highmolecular- weight dielectric polymers [generally based on polyethylene oxide (PEO)]. The...

Briefs: Materials
Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without...

Briefs: Mechanical & Fluid Systems
Rapid-Chill Cryogenic Coaxial Direct- Acting Solenoid Valve

A commercially available cryogenic direct-acting solenoid valve has been modified to incorporate a rapid-chill feature. In the original application for which this feature was devised, there is a requirement to ensure that at all times, the valve outlet flow consists entirely or mostly...

A system for mechanical suspension and vibration isolation of a machine or instrument is based on the use of Kevlar (or equivalent aromatic polyamide) cord held in variable tension...

Briefs: Manufacturing & Prototyping
Techniques for Connecting Superconducting Thin Films

Several improved techniques for connecting superconducting thin films on substrates have been developed. The techniques afford some versatility for tailoring the electronic and mechanical characteristics of junctions between superconductors in experimental electronic devices. The techniques...

Briefs: Manufacturing & Prototyping
Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following:

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Mixed-Salt/Ester Electrolytes for Low-Temperature Li⁺ Cells

Electrolytes comprising, variously, LiPF6 or LiPF6 plus LiBF4 dissolved at various concentrations in mixtures of alkyl carbonates and alkyl esters have been found to afford improved low-temperature performance in rechargeable lithium-ion...

The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Miniature Electrostatic Ion Thruster With Magnet

A miniature electrostatic ion thruster is proposed that, with one exception, would be based on the same principles as those of the device described in the previous article, “Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster” (NPO-21057). The exceptional feature of this thruster would be that, in...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Miniature Free-Space Electrostatic Ion Thrusters

A miniature electrostatic ion thruster is proposed for maneuvering small spacecraft. In a thruster based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into an ionizer based on the same principles as those of the device described in the earlier article, “Miniature Bipolar...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Miniature Oxidizer Ionizer for a Fuel Cell

A proposed miniature device for ionizing the oxygen (or other oxidizing gas) in a fuel cell would consist mostly of a membrane ionizer using the same principles as those of the device described in the earlier article, “Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster” (NPO-21057). The oxidizing gas...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Miniature Ion-Mobility Spectrometer

The figure depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would be fabricated by micromachining. Unlike prior ion-mobility spectrometers, the proposed instrument would not be based on a...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Miniature Ion-Array Spectrometer

The figure depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would share many features of design and operation of the instrument described in the immediately preceding article. The main differences...

Developing a control system rapidly and cost effectively requires a disciplined approach that exposes design limitations early so they can be corrected before the...

Briefs: Physical Sciences
Promoted-Combustion Chamber With Induction Heating Coil

An improved promoted-combustion system has been developed for studying the effects of elevated temperatures on the flammability of metals in pure oxygen. In prior promoted-combustion chambers, initial temperatures of metal specimens in experiments have been limited to the temperatures of...

Thermal spore exposure vessels (TSEVs) are laboratory containers designed for use in measuring rates of death or survival of microbial spores at elevated temperatures. A major consideration in the design of a...

Briefs: Medical
Enumerating Spore-Forming Bacteria Airborne With Particles

A laboratory method has been conceived to enable the enumeration of:

Cultivable bacteria and bacterial spores that are, variously, airborne by themselves or carried by, parts of, or otherwise associated with, other airborne particles; and Spore-forming bacteria among all of the...

A method of sequence detection has been proposed to mitigate the effects of inter-slot interference and inter-symbol interference (both denoted "ISI") in the reception of M-ary...

An algorithm searches a star catalog to identify guide stars within the field of view of a telescope or camera. The algorithm is fast: the number of computations needed to perform the...

Briefs: Information Technology
Expectation-Based Control of Noise and Chaos

A proposed approach to control of noise and chaos in dynamic systems would supplement conventional methods. The approach is based on fictitious forces composed of expectations governed by Fokker-Planck or Liouville equations that describe the evolution of the probability densities of the controlled...

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